The conference is intended to be a single spot for learning from industry veterans and discovering perspectives and advancements from those with a detailed understanding and practical experience in resolving disputes. AIAC’s young groups are organizing the conference, and it will highlight knowledgeable arbitrators and exceptional students wanting to share their research results.
Proceedings of the International Congress of Classical Archaeology
Participate in this conference to learn about the various aspects of ancient economic history that deal with ancient society and its development and cultural background.
religion & art
Explore a distinct multidisciplinary field of study that focuses on the imaginative interaction of pictures and conceptual understanding of religious actions.
You will learn about the significance and process of urban development through the various papers presented.
Gain knowledge about ancient economics, which refers to ideas from people well before the Medieval Era that deals with contemporary assessment as an ethical and political factor.
Analyze the physical elements of a society, the items created or altered by humans that encircle and describe an individual and its actions.
ancient societies offers excellent opportunities for and
Join us at our conference to learn about the ancient societies surrounding us and the fantastic opportunities they can provide. Check out the opportunities available!
studying the structure
Understand the structure of human settlements that arose as humans learned and acquired skills for taming flora and fauna, eventually leading to agriculture.
dynamics of ancient economic
Learn about the economy’s growth theory and the difficulties in assessing it, which demonstrates that a wide range of information can be used to approximate ancient economic growth.
Acquaint yourself with the facts of ancient society’s development over time and assess the growth and performance predicated on the basic variables that moulded the ancient economy.
economic system and processes
Interact with people who have worked in economic systems that control production factors, including many organizations in the economic structure’s decision-making procedures.
The focus is on classical Mediterranean culture
Learn about cultural history focusing on the Mediterranean region, which gave rise to the ancient civilizations of Greece and Rome. Do you want to know more? Simply follow the navigation to read more about it!
Actively engage in this conference centred on Archaeology and Economy in the Ancient World, which examines how economic factors pervade all facets of public and private existence in ancient cultures, whether in urban advancement, faith, art, shelter, or fatality.
Every conference, including ours, has a goal in mind. To learn more about the congress, look into its main goals.
To Understand Economy As A Central Element Of Classical Societies
Listen to several expert speakers as they discuss ancient societies whose economies were based primarily on the land.
Current Geographical, Political, Social
Compare and contrast the information you learned at the conference, and analyze various aspects of society that contribute to the development of the archaeological sector.
Religious And Cultural Backgrounds
The conference's main goal is to convey how various communities' religious and cultural backgrounds have aided development.
Learn more about our conference by reading the feedback of our previous participants.
"I learned a lot about ancient societies and their structures at the conference. Thank you to all the knowledgeable presenters who helped me see another side of historical societies."
Christy D. Bryant
"This conference has played a significant role in my life by bringing to light previously unseen aspects of society and its evolution over time. Their presenters were highly knowledgeable and easy to communicate with."
Clifton S. Cooley
"The conference stayed true to its goal of clearly focusing on classical societies and their connections with various aspects of society, which helped me learn how societies developed."
Ancient economic thought is a term used to describe views that were taken by people even before Middle Ages in the era of financial philosophy. According to contemporary interpretation, economics and politics were factors in the late Middle Ages of economists, which was only studied as a multidisciplinary category in the 18th century.
Towards the east
The requirement to effectively cultivate crops in river systems influenced the early societies of the golden crescent’s economic landscape. The oldest instances of regulated numbers written in base 60 with Egyptian fractions can be found in the Mesopotamia and Delta valleys.
The Heqanakht papyrus scroll mention Egyptian granary caretakers and non-resident Egyptian proprietors. The main accounting instrument for agrarian cultures during this time, the weights used to quantify grain inventories, expressed both religious and ethical signifiers, according to scholars of the era.
The Erlenmeyer stones depict Sumerian agriculture in the Euphrates River between 2200 and 2100 BC; they also demonstrate an understanding of the connection between wheat and labour outputs and inputs (measured in “female labour weeks”) as well as a focus on economy.
The Sumerian downtown area created a commerce and marketplace system centred on the Shekel, which represented a particular weight measure of wheat. The Babylonians and its neighbouring downtown area eventually created the first economic structure utilising a metre of commodity that was defined in a law system. The ancient Sumerian law codes, which are regarded as the primary economic equation, contained numerous elements that are still present in the modern price mechanism, including enshrined in law amounts of money required for company operations, monetary penalties for “misdoing,” succession laws, and regulations on the procedure for deduction and division of private property.
Ancient Greco-Roman World
As a rapid economic theory was based on metaphysical assumptions that are entirely inconsistent with current mainstream economic ideas like neo-classical finance, some researchers believe that the economic thought akin to the contemporary notion emerged during the eighteenth century or the Revolution.
Aristotle and Xenophon, among other ancient Greek and Roman philosophers, provided a number of socioeconomic insights. Numerous other Greek literatures demonstrate a mastery of complex economic proposals. For example, Gresham’s Law is depicted in some manner in Aristophanes’ Frogs, and Plato also acknowledges the value of traditional fiat in his Laws (742a–b) in the pseudo-Platonic conversation Eryxias, in addition to applying complicated mathematical techniques inspired by Pythagoreans. Neo-Platonist Bryson of Heraclea is credited with having a significant impact on early Muslim research and analysis.
The writings of Greek historian Xenophon reveals the impact of Mesopotamian and Persian philosophy on Greek administrative finance. In his Oeconomicus, and Ways and Means, discussions of economic theories are particularly prevalent. A small piece of literature called Hiero discusses how some rulers encourage innovation and commercial output by giving out awards and receiving admiration.
Germany was considered a federation with numerous states and cities of different sizes and development until the 19th century. However, modernization and change in the nation’s economic growth sparked industrialization. By 1999, Germany was also known as the latest economic nation with the introduction of the steel and chemical industries.
However, after World War II, the dynamics of the ancient German economic structure changed utterly. With the help of Ludwig Erhard, it was still able to recover and faced an economic miracle by the end of 1960. The economic growth post world war grew to great heights, so much that it was also embedded in the Eastern Block as a well-planned economy for social standards.
Economic miracle in Germany
After World war II, West Germany had to undergo a total miracle to regain all its lost economic growth. Germany took help from several sources, including the European Recovery Program funds, called the Marshall Plan. Germans were ready to work for lower wages and longer hours to rebuild and reconstruct their economic structure. However, the miraculous breakthrough was seen through Erhard’s reforms and the country’s introduction of a new currency. Some of the benefits lead to the following:
The growth rate in industrial production rose from 18.1% to 25% in 1950
In 1960, the growth increased further, and profits were nearly two and a half times that of 1950.
GDP also rose by two–thirds of the gains in that every decade.
Employment also rose from 13 million to 18 million
The unemployment rate fell from 10.3 to 1.2 % in 1960
Between 1949 and 1955, wages and salaries increased to 80% for all minimum and high-wage workers.
The Federal Cartel Office was created the same year to prevent German monopolies from a return to the country.
Economic balance in Germany
By the end of 1976, the nation was stabilized, and economic growth was linear with a decline in the inflation rate. By 1980, Bundesbank and Schmidt were able to establish complete economic balance in the country. However, by early 1981, problems returned, and the situation started taking a downfall with an increase in unemployment and a decrease in growth. Due to the government’s involvement in the economic growth factor, people decided to exclude the growth from having a say!
However, despite crucial measures in the role of government in the economic state, the needle barely moved, and positive shifts were slow and uneven. However, the German reunification after 1990 led to the nation’s reorientation.
Due to the rapid downfalls of Germany, it was called the ‘Sick Man of Europe’ and still led to inflation and recession in 2003. The great recession Worldwide also contributed to its worsening conditions, which led to a sharp decline in German GDP. But after 2010, while the rest of the countries faced economic issues, Germany started to make financial changes, which led to the growth of a robust economic nation.
For several decades, modern-day scholars and archeologists believed that revealing and uncovering the archaeological history of German-speaking land would unveil the country’s characteristics. This also meant finding and interpreting the meaning of old artifacts of prehistoric times. Following this thought, thousands of historians and famous archeologists are fixated on understating German ruins that will illuminate how the nation’s people changed after the national unification.
In this article, we have mentioned certain Roman ruins and archeological sites in Germany worth visiting to understand the nation’s local and social cultures.
Saalburg Roman Fort
The fort represents the ancient history and culture unveiled after excavation in the late 1850s. This fort was built in the Northwest of Bad Homburg, considered a fortification of Upper German Limes. However, the regiment was reconstructed by Kaiser Wilhelm II in 1897, which is now a signature spot to witness German and Roman royalty.
LVR-Archeological Partk Xanten
In 70AD, the park was part of the second most important commercial city of Germany, Inferior, which was destroyed by Germanic tribes in 275AD and was rebuilt as Tricensimae. After its destruction, it is rebuilt as a park in the medieval town of Xanten, on the banks of the lower Rhine, in memory of the people living there. It is a tourist attraction with a theater, a defensive wall, and a bathhouse.
Porta Praetoria, Regensburg
Regensburg was also called Casta Regina in the 2nd century AD. After the first destruction, most of its stones were utilized for construction. However, despite the tragic collapse of the court, the gate from the northern walls of the fort remains intact because it was also a part of the Bishop’s court in the late 17th century. The remains are now considered a tourist attraction and an essential element in depicting German archeological history.
Mogontiaacum, located on the Rhine river in the early German civilization, served as a military base for the Romans. It is an artificial town that screams beauty and also attracts traders from all over the world. Mainz also comprises ancient remains, a temple’s foundations, aqueduct remnants, and many more.
Trier, Augusta Treverorum
Trier was founded by Romans in the 16th century BC and is still considered one of German’s oldest cities. Also known as ‘second Rome’ in the 4th century AD, it is home to extraordinarily well-preserved and delicate Roman remains. It has also secured its position in the UNESCO list of world heritage sites. It contains the basilica for Constantine, bathtubs, a theater, a bridge over the Moselle, and many more.
Varusschlacht Park and Museum
Historians say that the local German tribes ambushed the Romans at this place, marking the end of Augustus’ expansions. This park and museum consist of some battle aspects and provide the visitors with an experience of walking through the archeological expansion sites.
It is a no-brainer that ancient economic progress was bleak compared to modern civilizations. Due to educated systems and government, the contemporary world is a salve to economic growth. However, the same was not true during medieval and ancient times. The process of economic growth was slow and obsolete.
This article has summarized a brief guide on the economy of different civilizations like the Indus valley, Ancient Chinese, and Egyptian civilizations. Although they were obsolete, some methods and infrastructures employed by these civilizations have modern thinking and are also used in today’s generation.
Ancient Chinese Economy
The Chinese generally traded silk with central Asia, Rome, and some places in the Mediterranean. Since the Chinese used a standard trail for imports and exports, they were popularly called ‘The Silk Roads.’ However, they were not limited to skill but also expanded their trade to salt and sugar and, in turn, received commodities like wool, silver, cotton, and other items.
The ancient Chinese used an irrigation system called Dujiangyan by taking advantage of the rivers’ downflow and scattering their different areas. This technique helped various regions serve the population of 13.5 million. Agriculture was also an essential part of the Chinese economy that helped cultivate wet rice, their staple food.
Division of labor
Labor was segregated based on the social classes of the people, and they gained expertise in their field to better business.
The ancient Egyptian civilization generally traded with West Africa with good relations with the Lebanese. They were mainly famous for their trades in jewelry, cloth, and the exchange of animal products. Slowly, they also started gaining traction and economic growth for trading timber.
Due to the never-ending benefits of the Nile River, Egypt was blessed with fertile crops year-round, which also became the primary source of its economic boost. Thus, Egyptians relied on irrigation and agriculture for their economic growth by producing crops like flax, linen, grains, etc. Banking and management of land also formed an integral part of their economic growth.
Division of labor
They also divided their work based on classes. The high classes ran the economy and government, while the lower ones were responsible for framing and other land work.
Ancient Indus Valley
Indus Valley citizens traded with China, Iraq, Mesopotamia, and Afghanistan. They mainly made use of the bartering system to maintain their economic stability. They traded for silver, gold, bronze, copper, and many more.
Indus Valley citizens were the most populated lot, with a population of 5 million. Their primary source of economic growth was the domestication of pigs, cows, and goats. They also cultivated exotic crops like grapes, melons, and dates.
Division of labor
Again, jobs in their civilization were based on their social class. Since agriculture was one of the main jobs, the lower sections would cultivate crops, and the higher section traded them.
Although there are geographical differences in all these regions, they’re also substantially similar. As a result, some of these economic growth and development techniques are still followed in many countries.
In the pre-historic era, cattle were generally used in exchange for goods, other products, and daily necessities. Over the years, after the industrial revolution began to take over the ancient world, the concept of currency began to rise. However, until modernization and the industrial revolution, the world’s average GDP was 158$ per annum.
In the 3rd century BC, Ancient Egypt was home to most people in the world, and it had the highest gross population, which helped the country develop in terms of trade, market, and economy in general. The concept of money was developed by Babylonians, using a metric system to exchange commodities under a fixed legal code. These legal codes were the first financial law practices that were put forth by ancient humans, which have developed into the economic world we live in today. The exchange of gold and silver coins began around 650-600BC by scholars, Lydians, etc.
The strategic rise of economic evolution in the world
Eventually, China and India became hubs for economic development, accounting for more than half of the world’s economic growth in the next 1500 years. However, although their GDPs were high, their per capita GDP saw a gradual downfall due to the increase in population density.
Europe was under economic backwater in the early days of the middle ages. However, at the start of the medieval period, Europe started trading goods with prosperous cities and counties, leading to economic improvement.
Economic growth saw a different turn of events. It gained a new direction in Britain and other parts of Europe, during the industrial revolution, due to their high demand for energy consumption. The linear growth in the industrial revolution across all countries led to massive growth in per capita GDP. This growth revolutionized trade and also improved international relations.
The Paleolithic era was between 500,00 BC to 10,000 BC. Economic trade and resources were minimal during this era, which happened over ecosystem factors like fauna and flora, climate, etc. During this time, ancient people adapted to changing environments, and the population increased from 1 to 15 million.
This period emerged over 100,000 years ago and marked the first step in domesticating animals and plants for personal and commercial use. People started settling in communities and places in different regions.
In this era, people were interested in specializing in skills within their environment. The idea of necessary trade also increased during this time. Agriculture also increased in America, south, and East Asia during this time.
It was the era of reformat when the Roman Empire became the largest empire in the ancient world, with up to 90 million inhabitants. India and china also joined the suit in enhancing population and increasing GDP.
Early modern era
This was when international trade, mercantilism, and other opportunities opened doors in the new world and Asia. Economic theory and political movements were also advocated in the year, with the introduction of the first banknote in Europe.
Humans have occupied the world for time immemorial. Although the modernization of industries, tools, and techniques has shaped us to a certain extent, their invention began with ancient humans, some of which are followed by us even today. Some significant findings of archeologists are mentioned below that depict and tickle the mind to imagine the lifestyle, eating, hunting, and other habits of the ancient world.
The dead sea scrolls
It lies near Khirbet Wumran, an ancient settlement of people found on the West Bank. As the name suggests, the dead sea scrolls are a collection of 800 manuscripts found in caves 2km from the death scenes. Archeologists and historians discovered these to be Hebrew Scriptures that were written 700 years before the birth of Jesus. It highlights the origin of the Bible and the involvement of different sects of people responsible for putting them together.
These Spanish caves are examples of beautiful stories by ancient people, which according to historians, follow a combination of archeology and anthropology. They contain different prehistoric events, paintings of humans and animals, etc., discovered by historians in 1880. This discovery opened our minds to the development of painting over generations and the existence of artistic expression in the ancient world.
Richard Ill’s grave
Richard Ill was the last Plantagenet Kind of England, remembered as a nasty power grabber of England. Despite his notoriety, his death and burial remain a mystery. However, with the help of different archaeological services, human remains were found at the site of Greyfriars Friary Church in Leicester, United Kingdom.
It is considered the most breath-taking structure of the ancient world, which comprises terracotta sculptures of the Chinese army of Qin Shi Huang. In recent times, these were considered the mark of the beginning of funeral art, which embarks the emperor’s protection, even after his death. The army was present from the 3rd century BC, with almost 520 horses, 8000 soldiers, and over 130 characters for war. These statues talk about the history of the Chinese army – their weapons, dressing style, uniforms, and many more.
It is an ancient city buried under ashes after a tragic volcanic eruption in 79 AD. The incident killed almost all its inhabitants and turned the city into a graveyard. However, over the years, it has become an archeological site that holds Roman treasures. Today, many archeologists and historians can study the Roman city’s history due to Pompeii’s existence.
Easter Island Moai
Many famous archeologists have worked together to record exactly 887s statues on Easter Island in the Pacific Ocean. These Moai statues were built as a tribute to the people who were its inhabitants between 1250 and 1500. Legends of the Papa Nui tribe used divine power to make these statues walk.
Until the industrial revolution in the 1960s, the economic growth of ancient Germany was bleak and narrow. However, it was the need of the hour for the nation to reconstruct itself and grow in terms of the economy after the destruction of World War II. Almost 8.86% of the German population was killed in the war, severely damaging agricultural production, economic growth, development, etc.
As a massive result of this destruction, around 25% of Germany was ceded to Poland, and the Soviet Union and Germans started scattering around Eastern Europe. According to ancient books and other historians, almost 2 million of the population died in the process of spreading across Europe.
The economic situation in Medieval Germany
Germany was divided into various kingdoms, cities during medieval times. However, geographical expansion did not lead to economic growth, and collaboration with competitors was inevitable.
By the end of 1056, under Henry Ill’s rule, the population was about 7 to 8 million, with farmers as a majority. Over time, many free cities were developed that were presented along significant trade routes in Germany. Hence, people were introduced to trading between the east and west routes. As a result, the nation’s economic structure was soon determined by the presence of significant harbors and transport hubs along the Rhine River.
The Hanseatic League was developed to enhance marine trade in the Baltic and northern seas. Commercial and international trades grew to great heights with the formation of many unions. However, the arrival of the Black Death pandemic caused a social and economic downfall, with the unexpected death of nearly 40% of the population.
The economic situation in early modern Germany
Germany was under the Holy Roman Empire, which worked in their favor to create strong leadership and citizenship qualities in the 16 and 17th centuries. However, Germany remained under secondary access to trades and commodities, unlike France, the Netherlands, and Britain.
Industrial revolution in Germany
With skilled labor, a good work ethic, a strong educational system, and no other qualities, German states started catching up on the development of trade and industries in 1900. The French revolution, from the 1790s to 1815, opened new doors of opportunity for all classes of society! However, the beginning of an industrial revolution in Germany began in the textile industry in 1834, which further created opportunities in:
Banks and cartels
The welfare of all classes and states
The aftermath of the German economy
The terrible effects of post-world war II created a dent in the economic structure of Germany. As a result, there was a slow economic development in the east compared to a sharp curve in the south and west of Germany. Nevertheless, although the post world war Germany suffered a significant loss, it recovered and re-established itself post-2010 by making the necessary refinements.
Adam Smith, a Scottish businessman, thinker, and novelist who lived in the eighteenth century, is regarded as the founder of mainstream capitalism. Smith was a strong advocate of laissez-faire economic concepts and opposed high tariffs. Smith introduced the concept of an unseen hand, propensity of free markets to govern oneself via rivalry, supply and demand and self-interest.
Smith’s existence is first mentioned in writing at his christening on June 5, 1723, at Kirkcaldy, Scotland. Although his precise birthdate is uncertain, he was reared by his mother Margaret Douglas well after passing of his father Adam Smith. Just at 13, he enrolled in the University of Glasgow. Later, he went to Balliol School at Oxford University to study European culture. Following a number of very well courses he gave at Glasgow University after his come back home, the institution named him the seat of reasoning in 1751 and the professor of morality in 1752.
Smith gave a number of open lectures at the University of Edinburgh after leaving Scotland. His panel discussion was a triumph, and in 1751 Glasgow University appointed him as a lecturer. He ultimately became the Chair of Moral Philosophy. Smith sought to print several of his courses during the years that he spent studying and lecturing at Glasgow. The Philosophy of Moral Sentiments, his treatise, was subsequently released in 1759.
In order to take somewhat more lucrative job as a private coach to Charles Townshend’s stepson, a potential Chancellor of the Exchequer and hobby mathematician, Smith relocated to France in 1763. Smith lived in France at the same period as Benjamin Franklin, and Voltaire, all intellectuals.
The theory of free markets places a strong emphasis on limiting the influence of government and taxation involvement in the marketplace. Smith supported a weak national government but believed that the government should be in charge of a nation’s defence and school programs. Smith is the source of the “hidden hands” theory, which describes how the supply and demand factors in a system are controlled. In accordance with this notion, everyone unintentionally contributes to the best possible result for everyone by watching out for oneself.
In this society, a fictitious baker, brewer, and butchers would expect to profit from the sale of goods that customers would want to purchase. They will reap monetary advantages if they successfully address the requirements of their clients. While they are operating their business to make money, they also offer goods that consumers demand. According to Smith, such a structure generates income for the butcher, brewery, and baker as well as for the rest of the country.
The Mediterranean Sea in the entire Mediterranean region is embedded with rich cultural and economic values. The development of the Blue Economy has resolved many challenges over the years to improve economic value in the area and also provide endless growth opportunities for its people. The ocean surrounding the Mediterranean has rich economic value, and the government is involved in taking steps to preserve and make the best use of this ecosystem, which will help maintain and support its financial growth.
Studying the economic history of the Mediterranean region is one of the most crucial but poorly understood developmental phases when the area faced the transition from the Bronze Age into the Iron Age. The behavior and evolution of economic reforms in the early Iron Age throw light on the accelerating growth of the ancient Mediterranean basin, which has led to its drastic growth today.
At the end of 1000BC, new phases for reforms in the social field affected the trading activities of precious materials. The downfall of the Bronze Age and the drift towards the Early Iron Age saw a drastic change in the technological region in the Mediterranean basin. It was also marked as a start for ironworking technology in the region.
Due to the Phoenician expansion at the beginning of the 12th century, the cultural increase was primarily across the eastern parts of the region, directly affecting its economic growth. The word that Phoenicia is an example of the development of a “world economy” spread like wildfire across the empires surrounding the Mediterranean region. However, the wars with Sassanid Persia and the domination by the Byzantine empire in the 6th century AD led to instability in climate, which disrupted trade and production. This, in turn, led to an economic decline.
The cultural and economic fall in the Mediterranean region and the surrounding empires allowed the Muslims to conquer and sweep through those regions. Hence, immediately after this, the Arab kingdom gained control over the Mediterranean economy and fostered an international relationship between the Mediterranean Sea and the Indian Ocean.
Modern Mediterranean Economy
After facing instability in the economic region over thousands of years by different empires ruling the area, now the Mediterranean Sea generates an annual income of 450 billion USD. Fisheries are significant contributors to the region’s economic growth.
The “Blue Economy” model created in recent times by the government helps sustain these economic revolutions, helped by the tourism industry as well. It aims to improve and maintain the Mediterranean region’s financial consistency.
The Mediterranean Sea is also a crucial part of the economic growth in the Mediterranean region, which provides a source of employment. According to an estimate, 430,000 people work in the aquaculture sector of the Mediterranean land, and the region also contributes to 30% of global tourism.
The Mediterranean region follows a complex cultural and social history that can be understood by educating ourselves about the development of different civilizations in the area. Earlier, the Mediterranean Sea was a hub for transport, trade, and cultural exchange among people of diverse continents.
Certain parts of France, Italy, Bulgaria, and Europe surround the Mediterranean Basin. The trade and exchange among these countries were evidence of the use of the boat as a means of transportation, even in 130,000 BC. In addition, the areas surrounding the Black Sea were a hub for all the European civilizations between 500BC and 4200 BC.
The region’s ancient history suggests that the cultural advances in the Bronze Age were restrained to the Eastern Parts of the Mediterranean region. However, in the Mediterranean, the entire Mediterranean region has significantly contributed to cultural and economic development.
The two most influential civilizations in the Mediterranean region were the Phoenicians and the Greek City states. The Greeks were found expanding throughout the South of the Red Sea and the entire region of the Black Sea. At the same time, the Phoenicians mainly occupied the western region, touching North Africa and the Iberian Peninsula.
In the 5th century, the entire Mediterranean region was under Persian rule, which ended after the Gerco-Persian War in the 5th Century BC. However, transformation in the region began after the downfall between the 5th Century BC and 1st century AD when the Odrysian kingdom took over the Mediterranean region.
The middle and the late middle ages
After the Roman-Persian war in the Mediterranean region, the power of Islam rose in the Mediterranean empire. It expanded its influence in the middle east, engulfing all the Persian lands. The trade relations disrupted the relationship between Western and Eastern Europe, which indirectly affected trade relations with the Caspian Sea. The Jewish merchants exported spices and silk to the Eastern world, like Constantinople and Venice.
Between 831 and 1071, after the conquest by Normans, the Mediterranean was drastically influenced by Byzantine and Latin influences, while Palermo remained an artistic and commercial center in the Mediterranean region.
Slavery was one of the most strategic influences of the Mediterranean middle ages. The working and the slower class, like fishermen, and peasants, feared becoming slaves, while the rich feared the lack of support. Then, in 1347, the incident of the Black Death spread across Constantinople and the entire Mediterranean basin.
Modern Mediterranean region
In the 18th century, a balance of power was established between the Ottoman Empire and the Spanish Crown, each dominating the Mediterranean region. This also had an along-range influence on the export of spices and others. In the 19th century, the Mediterranean areas were preferred for trade due to the short route across the sea.
Recently, the Mediterranean Sea has been one of the most important trade routes in the world. Therefore, many patrolling officials are also appointed in the Mediterranean Sea to strengthen the national system and rescue migrants from traffickers and immigrants.