The conference is intended to be a single spot for learning from industry veterans and discovering perspectives and advancements from those with a detailed understanding and practical experience in resolving disputes. AIAC’s young groups are organizing the conference, and it will highlight knowledgeable arbitrators and exceptional students wanting to share their research results.
Proceedings of the International Congress of Classical Archaeology
Participate in this conference to learn about the various aspects of ancient economic history that deal with ancient society and its development and cultural background.
religion & art
Explore a distinct multidisciplinary field of study that focuses on the imaginative interaction of pictures and conceptual understanding of religious actions.
You will learn about the significance and process of urban development through the various papers presented.
Gain knowledge about ancient economics, which refers to ideas from people well before the Medieval Era that deals with contemporary assessment as an ethical and political factor.
Analyze the physical elements of a society, the items created or altered by humans that encircle and describe an individual and its actions.
ancient societies offers excellent opportunities for and
Join us at our conference to learn about the ancient societies surrounding us and the fantastic opportunities they can provide. Check out the opportunities available!
studying the structure
Understand the structure of human settlements that arose as humans learned and acquired skills for taming flora and fauna, eventually leading to agriculture.
dynamics of ancient economic
Learn about the economy’s growth theory and the difficulties in assessing it, which demonstrates that a wide range of information can be used to approximate ancient economic growth.
Acquaint yourself with the facts of ancient society’s development over time and assess the growth and performance predicated on the basic variables that moulded the ancient economy.
economic system and processes
Interact with people who have worked in economic systems that control production factors, including many organizations in the economic structure’s decision-making procedures.
The focus is on classical Mediterranean culture
Learn about cultural history focusing on the Mediterranean region, which gave rise to the ancient civilizations of Greece and Rome. Do you want to know more? Simply follow the navigation to read more about it!
Actively engage in this conference centred on Archaeology and Economy in the Ancient World, which examines how economic factors pervade all facets of public and private existence in ancient cultures, whether in urban advancement, faith, art, shelter, or fatality.
Every conference, including ours, has a goal in mind. To learn more about the congress, look into its main goals.
To Understand Economy As A Central Element Of Classical Societies
Listen to several expert speakers as they discuss ancient societies whose economies were based primarily on the land.
Current Geographical, Political, Social
Compare and contrast the information you learned at the conference, and analyze various aspects of society that contribute to the development of the archaeological sector.
Religious And Cultural Backgrounds
The conference's main goal is to convey how various communities' religious and cultural backgrounds have aided development.
Learn more about our conference by reading the feedback of our previous participants.
"I learned a lot about ancient societies and their structures at the conference. Thank you to all the knowledgeable presenters who helped me see another side of historical societies."
Christy D. Bryant
"This conference has played a significant role in my life by bringing to light previously unseen aspects of society and its evolution over time. Their presenters were highly knowledgeable and easy to communicate with."
Clifton S. Cooley
"The conference stayed true to its goal of clearly focusing on classical societies and their connections with various aspects of society, which helped me learn how societies developed."
Until the industrial revolution in the 1960s, the economic growth of ancient Germany was bleak and narrow. However, it was the need of the hour for the nation to reconstruct itself and grow in terms of the economy after the destruction of World War II. Almost 8.86% of the German population was killed in the war, severely damaging agricultural production, economic growth, development, etc.
As a massive result of this destruction, around 25% of Germany was ceded to Poland, and the Soviet Union and Germans started scattering around Eastern Europe. According to ancient books and other historians, almost 2 million of the population died in the process of spreading across Europe.
The economic situation in Medieval Germany
Germany was divided into various kingdoms, cities during medieval times. However, geographical expansion did not lead to economic growth, and collaboration with competitors was inevitable.
By the end of 1056, under Henry Ill’s rule, the population was about 7 to 8 million, with farmers as a majority. Over time, many free cities were developed that were presented along significant trade routes in Germany. Hence, people were introduced to trading between the east and west routes. As a result, the nation’s economic structure was soon determined by the presence of significant harbors and transport hubs along the Rhine River.
The Hanseatic League was developed to enhance marine trade in the Baltic and northern seas. Commercial and international trades grew to great heights with the formation of many unions. However, the arrival of the Black Death pandemic caused a social and economic downfall, with the unexpected death of nearly 40% of the population.
The economic situation in early modern Germany
Germany was under the Holy Roman Empire, which worked in their favor to create strong leadership and citizenship qualities in the 16 and 17th centuries. However, Germany remained under secondary access to trades and commodities, unlike France, the Netherlands, and Britain.
Industrial revolution in Germany
With skilled labor, a good work ethic, a strong educational system, and no other qualities, German states started catching up on the development of trade and industries in 1900. The French revolution, from the 1790s to 1815, opened new doors of opportunity for all classes of society! However, the beginning of an industrial revolution in Germany began in the textile industry in 1834, which further created opportunities in:
Banks and cartels
The welfare of all classes and states
The aftermath of the German economy
The terrible effects of post-world war II created a dent in the economic structure of Germany. As a result, there was a slow economic development in the east compared to a sharp curve in the south and west of Germany. Nevertheless, although the post world war Germany suffered a significant loss, it recovered and re-established itself post-2010 by making the necessary refinements.
Adam Smith, a Scottish businessman, thinker, and novelist who lived in the eighteenth century, is regarded as the founder of mainstream capitalism. Smith was a strong advocate of laissez-faire economic concepts and opposed high tariffs. Smith introduced the concept of an unseen hand, propensity of free markets to govern oneself via rivalry, supply and demand and self-interest.
Smith’s existence is first mentioned in writing at his christening on June 5, 1723, at Kirkcaldy, Scotland. Although his precise birthdate is uncertain, he was reared by his mother Margaret Douglas well after passing of his father Adam Smith. Just at 13, he enrolled in the University of Glasgow. Later, he went to Balliol School at Oxford University to study European culture. Following a number of very well courses he gave at Glasgow University after his come back home, the institution named him the seat of reasoning in 1751 and the professor of morality in 1752.
Smith gave a number of open lectures at the University of Edinburgh after leaving Scotland. His panel discussion was a triumph, and in 1751 Glasgow University appointed him as a lecturer. He ultimately became the Chair of Moral Philosophy. Smith sought to print several of his courses during the years that he spent studying and lecturing at Glasgow. The Philosophy of Moral Sentiments, his treatise, was subsequently released in 1759.
In order to take somewhat more lucrative job as a private coach to Charles Townshend’s stepson, a potential Chancellor of the Exchequer and hobby mathematician, Smith relocated to France in 1763. Smith lived in France at the same period as Benjamin Franklin, and Voltaire, all intellectuals.
The theory of free markets places a strong emphasis on limiting the influence of government and taxation involvement in the marketplace. Smith supported a weak national government but believed that the government should be in charge of a nation’s defence and school programs. Smith is the source of the “hidden hands” theory, which describes how the supply and demand factors in a system are controlled. In accordance with this notion, everyone unintentionally contributes to the best possible result for everyone by watching out for oneself.
In this society, a fictitious baker, brewer, and butchers would expect to profit from the sale of goods that customers would want to purchase. They will reap monetary advantages if they successfully address the requirements of their clients. While they are operating their business to make money, they also offer goods that consumers demand. According to Smith, such a structure generates income for the butcher, brewery, and baker as well as for the rest of the country.
The Mediterranean Sea in the entire Mediterranean region is embedded with rich cultural and economic values. The development of the Blue Economy has resolved many challenges over the years to improve economic value in the area and also provide endless growth opportunities for its people. The ocean surrounding the Mediterranean has rich economic value, and the government is involved in taking steps to preserve and make the best use of this ecosystem, which will help maintain and support its financial growth.
Studying the economic history of the Mediterranean region is one of the most crucial but poorly understood developmental phases when the area faced the transition from the Bronze Age into the Iron Age. The behavior and evolution of economic reforms in the early Iron Age throw light on the accelerating growth of the ancient Mediterranean basin, which has led to its drastic growth today.
At the end of 1000BC, new phases for reforms in the social field affected the trading activities of precious materials. The downfall of the Bronze Age and the drift towards the Early Iron Age saw a drastic change in the technological region in the Mediterranean basin. It was also marked as a start for ironworking technology in the region.
Due to the Phoenician expansion at the beginning of the 12th century, the cultural increase was primarily across the eastern parts of the region, directly affecting its economic growth. The word that Phoenicia is an example of the development of a “world economy” spread like wildfire across the empires surrounding the Mediterranean region. However, the wars with Sassanid Persia and the domination by the Byzantine empire in the 6th century AD led to instability in climate, which disrupted trade and production. This, in turn, led to an economic decline.
The cultural and economic fall in the Mediterranean region and the surrounding empires allowed the Muslims to conquer and sweep through those regions. Hence, immediately after this, the Arab kingdom gained control over the Mediterranean economy and fostered an international relationship between the Mediterranean Sea and the Indian Ocean.
Modern Mediterranean Economy
After facing instability in the economic region over thousands of years by different empires ruling the area, now the Mediterranean Sea generates an annual income of 450 billion USD. Fisheries are significant contributors to the region’s economic growth.
The “Blue Economy” model created in recent times by the government helps sustain these economic revolutions, helped by the tourism industry as well. It aims to improve and maintain the Mediterranean region’s financial consistency.
The Mediterranean Sea is also a crucial part of the economic growth in the Mediterranean region, which provides a source of employment. According to an estimate, 430,000 people work in the aquaculture sector of the Mediterranean land, and the region also contributes to 30% of global tourism.
The Mediterranean region follows a complex cultural and social history that can be understood by educating ourselves about the development of different civilizations in the area. Earlier, the Mediterranean Sea was a hub for transport, trade, and cultural exchange among people of diverse continents.
Certain parts of France, Italy, Bulgaria, and Europe surround the Mediterranean Basin. The trade and exchange among these countries were evidence of the use of the boat as a means of transportation, even in 130,000 BC. In addition, the areas surrounding the Black Sea were a hub for all the European civilizations between 500BC and 4200 BC.
The region’s ancient history suggests that the cultural advances in the Bronze Age were restrained to the Eastern Parts of the Mediterranean region. However, in the Mediterranean, the entire Mediterranean region has significantly contributed to cultural and economic development.
The two most influential civilizations in the Mediterranean region were the Phoenicians and the Greek City states. The Greeks were found expanding throughout the South of the Red Sea and the entire region of the Black Sea. At the same time, the Phoenicians mainly occupied the western region, touching North Africa and the Iberian Peninsula.
In the 5th century, the entire Mediterranean region was under Persian rule, which ended after the Gerco-Persian War in the 5th Century BC. However, transformation in the region began after the downfall between the 5th Century BC and 1st century AD when the Odrysian kingdom took over the Mediterranean region.
The middle and the late middle ages
After the Roman-Persian war in the Mediterranean region, the power of Islam rose in the Mediterranean empire. It expanded its influence in the middle east, engulfing all the Persian lands. The trade relations disrupted the relationship between Western and Eastern Europe, which indirectly affected trade relations with the Caspian Sea. The Jewish merchants exported spices and silk to the Eastern world, like Constantinople and Venice.
Between 831 and 1071, after the conquest by Normans, the Mediterranean was drastically influenced by Byzantine and Latin influences, while Palermo remained an artistic and commercial center in the Mediterranean region.
Slavery was one of the most strategic influences of the Mediterranean middle ages. The working and the slower class, like fishermen, and peasants, feared becoming slaves, while the rich feared the lack of support. Then, in 1347, the incident of the Black Death spread across Constantinople and the entire Mediterranean basin.
Modern Mediterranean region
In the 18th century, a balance of power was established between the Ottoman Empire and the Spanish Crown, each dominating the Mediterranean region. This also had an along-range influence on the export of spices and others. In the 19th century, the Mediterranean areas were preferred for trade due to the short route across the sea.
Recently, the Mediterranean Sea has been one of the most important trade routes in the world. Therefore, many patrolling officials are also appointed in the Mediterranean Sea to strengthen the national system and rescue migrants from traffickers and immigrants.
Germany is home to thousands of artifacts that have witnessed the reign of different empires and civilizations that have ruled the nation for several years. The artifacts mentioned in this article highlight the European continent’s people, culture, developments, economy, and other factors. Read the article if you wish to find out more about them.
Hacksilver was found in Germany in 2005 by a hiker in the Upper Lusatia. This significant trove of silver was called the Cortniz hoard. According to the archeologist, most coins, silver ornaments, and jewelry in ancient Germany were hacked. Many of their fragments originated from Moravia, Bohemia, Scandinavia, Baghdad, and Bulgaria. According to reports, these were used before official currency and coins were introduced in ancient Germany.
Badge of Christ in the grave
A lead alloy badge of Christ was found in the grave around the 14th century in Harburg (part of Hamburg). The badge shows a Christ riding on a donkey. The idea of religion was introduced in Germany in the Middle ages by Roman Catholics. People went on religious pilgrims and carried their souvenirs to their graves.
The forged disc, representing a cosmic phenomenon in the sky, was depicted as one of the best and the most exciting findings of today’s Germany. It was found in 1999 in Saxony-Anhalt by treasure hunters carrying metal detectors. According to archeologists, these coins are 3,600 years old, but the coins are still subjected to speculation.
Deception of humans
The six-centimeter ivory amulet was discovered in 2008 inside a cave in southwestern Germany. It was named ‘The Venus of Hohle Fels.’ According to ancient and modern archeologists, their amulets were used by people nearly 40,000 years ago. Hence, it is also regarded as one of the oldest depictions of humans in the prehistoric era.
A golden hat was presented in Berlin’s Gropius museum, which was discovered in the Bronze Age of 1000BC. During the time, Central Europe consisted of deities and priests that were a part of the sun cult. These hats were believed to be made of golden leaves worn by influential people in the cult.
Jewelry of a princess
In 2010, a Celtic tomb of a noblewoman of German times was retrieved from the garage in the Southern German town of Herbertingen. The jewelry was made of bronze and traces of pure old that were imported from another county. This also meant that during the time, Europeans were trade experts even in the sixth century BC.
Swiss Knife of the stone age
Hand axes have been used by humans and ancient humans for as long as we can remember. These were dated back to 600,000 years to perform different kinds of tasks. For example, one run round-shaped tool was found in Germany, is presumed to be 35,000 years old, and was used for chopping, scraping, hitting, throwing, and cutting.
The ancient world was different from what our minds could comprehend. They were far more knowledgeable, mysterious, and experimental, which captivated humans after the industrial revolution. Many archeologists have worked together over many years to present the most impressive and mysterious findings of the ancient world. You can still till the end of the article to learn about them.
Stone spheres in Costa Rica date back to 600AD in the Diquis Delta. These stones are locally called Las Bolas or “the Balls,” which were an essence of the pre-Columbian civilization. They were created from molten magma. According to the archeologist to hold expertise in studying rocks, these stones were carved into perfect spheres using smaller, sharper stones. Many experts state that these spheres were used for astronomical purposes and to point directions to significant places. However, they also had other significance, which the historians are trying to speculate.
Cleopatra was the last of the rules of the Egyptian dynasty from 305 to 30BC. She was incredibly charming and famous for her beauty, intelligence, and romantic relationships with Mark Antony and Julias Caesar. When she was defeated in the battle of Actium in 31BC, she and Anthony committed suicide owing to the loss of their empire, and they were buried together. However, despite her popularity, the location of her tomb remains a mystery, and archeologists predict that it might be empty because the robbery was a widespread scandal in those times.
The pilots of the 20th century were puzzled to witness crisscross stonewalls in Egypt, Israel, and the deserted lands of Jordan. Upon investigation by archeologists, these were nicknamed ‘kites’ due to their appearance in 300BC. Thanks to recent studies by archeologists state that these kites were used as a funnel for wild animals to drive them into narrow pits. This method helped kill these animals in bulk.
Sexdating was part of the historical life in ancient Egypt
Egyptian pyramids are enormously fascinating structures that are popular for their structure and engineering. These pyramids were introduced to the world 5000 years ago; Cairo is now a site of a testament to ancient Egyptians. Their belief in the afterlife drove them to develop these structures all over the place. However, archeologists are still dedicated to finding new tunnels and shafts inside these structures, which can depict a new meaning.
Humans have always believed that people of the ancient world settled in clusters around a place and built temples around their settlements. However, the recent archeological findings of 1994 have proved otherwise at Gobekli Tepe in Turkey. Finding multiple rings around massive pillars dating back to the 10th millennium BC has questioned the chronological order of evolution. Archeologists worldwide are debating whether settlements arrived first or the structures and temples
The world is continually intrigued with what has been unearthed from our history because to the spectacular archaeological finds that are produced each year. Enjoy these entertaining archaeological facts relating to some of the most fascinating objects and natural elements ever discovered.
World’s foremost archaeologist
The earliest known archaeologist and chronicler was Nabonidus, the final monarch of the Neo-Babylonian Empire, who lived around 550 BCE. He carried out investigations on Mesopotamian temples that were still standing, primarily looking for foundational sediments. (The ceremonial burying of things beneath a concrete slab is known as a cornerstone dump.) In order to get more information that would enable him to return these locations to their initial purpose, Nabonidus searched for foundational reserves. King Nabonidus chronicled the construction and rebuilding of the palace of the monarch of the Akkadian Empire, Naram-Sin, on the renowned Nabonidus Cylinder. The British Museum in London is today where the Cylinders of Nabonidus is kept.
The earliest urban civilisation
Talking of Mesopotamia, the southern region of the region is Sumer, which holds the distinction of having been the earth’s natural first urban civilisation. Sumer, which is estimated to have been established between 4500 and 4000 BCE, was a thriving metropolitan centre by 3000 BCE. The Mesopotamian city-states of Ur and Uruk pioneered advances in speech, administration, and construction; Uruk’s peak population ranged from 40,000 to 80,000 people.
Nation with the most UNESCO locations
There are famous archaeological sites on each and every globe and throughout each nation. But which nation possesses the most serious technological, historic, and cultural activities? There are a staggering 58 of these UNESCO World Heritage sites in Italy. Germany topped the rankings with 51, then China in second with 56. Rome is among the most popular tourist destination in Europe, but you’ve probably also heard of places like Pompeii.
The Great Wall of China, which was constructed between 220 BCE and 1644 AD during the Ming Dynasty, is by far the most visited attraction in the country. The most visited location in Germany is Museumsinsel, which is home to five museums, every one of which is focused on a different theme.
Greatest relic of humans
Other early humans lived on the planet before homo sapiens in West Turkana, Kenya. The Lomedwi 3 location is where the handcrafted stone steel ingots, ribs, and flake from three million years ago were discovered. 130 pounding and slicing artefacts were uncovered in 2011, when a team of archeologist from Stony Brook University became lost and chose to investigate. They were identified depending on their geological position when compared to two layers of volcanic ash, making them the oldest weapons ever discovered. It has led archaeologists to hypothesise that considerably younger australopithecines than initially assumed learned how to toolchains.
The investigation of the historical and contemporary past events via artefacts is called archaeology. The million-year-old remains of our ancient human predecessors found in Africa may be studied by historians. They could also examine modern-day New York City structures from the mid – twentieth century. In order to gain a thorough knowledge of human civilization, archaeology examines the material remnants of the history.
The field of archaeology is hugely heterogeneous. The majority of archaeology concentrate on a certain area of the globe or research area. An archaeologist can gain competence on a particular subject through specialisation. Most historians concentrate on the research of stone axes (lithics), prehistoric flora (paleoethnobotany), skeletal bones (bioarchaeology), and creatures (zooarchaeology). Many archaeologists are experts in the methods used to locate, record, or examine ancient sites. The relics of anthropogenic that are found below the surface of the liquid or along the beaches are studied by undersea archaeologist. The term “CRM” alludes to the labour done by archaeologist to abide by local, state, and federal mandates.
Archaeological techniques are used similarly throughout the world. However, biology, the study of humans, is a branch of archaeologist in the Americas.
Sites of Archaeology
Any location with tangible evidence of earlier human activity is considered to be an ancient city. Archaeological sites come in many different varieties. Without the need for a documented history, ancient ancient finds are those. They might consist of towns or cities, mines, ancient graves, stone circles, camping grounds, and massive stone structures. An ancient deer’s collection of broken stone implements can indeed be considered a site. Or a place could be as substantial and intricate as the ancient towns of Chaco Canyon in the American southwest. Writings can help archaeologists with their studies at historic archaeological locations. These could also include highly populated contemporary cities, regions deep within a waterway, or the ocean.
Characteristics, Artifacts, and Monuments
Even the tiniest excavation site might have a plethora of significant data. Artifacts are anything that humans have created, altered, or even used. In order to understand the individuals who created and utilised the artefacts, archaeologists examine them. At ancient finds, features—non-portable artefacts are crucial sources of information. Characteristics can have items like soil marks that reveal the locations of former fences, buildings, or burial ponds. Eco facts are organic traces of individual interaction. Archaeology can learn about dietary habits and survival practises by studying plant and animal remnants.
In antiquity, examples are presented how objects relate to one another and to their environment. On an ancient excavation, each artefact has a specific location. Whenever transporting an artefact from its discovery site, archaeologists make a note of the precise position.