Panels

Der Kongress ist in zwölf Sektionen gegliedert innerhalb derer thematisch strukturierte Panels mit je fünf Vorträgen (Papers) stattfinden. Am 15. März 2017 endete die Bewerbungsrunde für Panels und über 100 Vorschläge wurden angenommen (siehe Liste unten).

Vorschläge für Vorträge für Panels oder Sektionen können nun bis zum 31. August eingereicht werden. Weitere Informationen finden sich beim Call for Papers.

  1. Der Faktor Mensch: Demographie, Ernährung, Gesundheit, Epidemien etc.
  2. Ökologische Faktoren auf die Wirtschaft: Klima, Landschaft etc.
  3. Produktion: Landnutzung, Industrie, Technologie, künstlerische Produktion etc.
  4. Ressourcengewinnung: Bergbau, Technologie, Umweltverschmutzung etc.
  5. Distribution: Handel und Austausch, Monetarisierung, Netzwerke, Transport, Infrastruktur (z.B. Häfen) etc.
  6. Konsumption: Alltags- und Luxuskonsum, Abfall, Recycling, Ernährung etc.
  7. Ökonomie des Kultes: Investitionen (z.B. Kultbauten), religiöser und ritueller Konsum, Ökonomie des Todes etc.
  8. Die Rolle der Stadt in der antiken Wirtschaft: städtische Infrastruktur, Stadt-Umlandbeziehung etc.
  9. Die Ökonomie des Militärs in Krieg und Frieden
  10. Ökonomie des Wissens: Erziehung, Innovation, Bildung etc.
  11. Methodologie: Feldforschung, Naturwissenschaften, Quantifizierung etc.
  12. Andere Themen außerhalb des Hauptthemas

Sektion 1

Der Faktor Mensch: Demographie, Ernährung, Gesundheit, Epidemien

Panel 1.1 (geschlossen)

Economy, society and health-related quality of life in the ancient world: Bioarchaeological perspectives from the Eastern Mediterranean



Organisatoren:

Sofia Voutsaki (University of Groningen)
Anna Lagia (Universität Freiburg)

Vortragende:

wird noch bekannt gegeben

Diskutant:

wird noch bekannt gegeben

In recent years scholars studying the ancient economy have often claimed that the Greco-Roman world was characterized by prosperity and increasing economic growth. To support this claim, data from diverse sources are used, including those which describe the quality of life in relation to health, assessed through the use of biological measures such as longevity, stature, mortality, morbidity and diet within clearly defined contexts.

The main aim of the panel is to explore the concept of health-related quality of life vis-à-vis the ancient economy and society. Our interest arises from two different, though related developments: On the one hand, the study of modern-day and archaeological contexts from a multitude of sites reveals a close correlation between health and socioeconomic status. On the other hand, there is a growing interest in the integration of mortuary (archaeological, epigraphic, prosopographical) and bioarchaeological data, and an increasing number of bioarchaeological studies of eastern Mediterranean necropoleis, or other burial contexts.

Our main questions are: How should we explore the correlation between socioeconomic status and health-related quality of life? Which methodological and interpretive tools should we use? How can contextual information help us consider the socioeconomic status of the deceased? Is comparability of health data feasible across time and space and what are the pitfalls? Can health-related quality of life be used to infer socioeconomic inequalities in terms of status, gender, or age, or sociocultural phenomena such as deviance? Is it possible to understand differences among cities, or between urban and rural populations? In this panel we will discuss examples from Athens, Phaleron, Chania, Sagalassos and other sites in the eastern Mediterranean dating from the Early Iron Age to the Roman period.

We hope that the panel will provide the opportunity for an interdisciplinary discussion and a more nuanced understanding of the relation between socioeconomic differentiation and health-related quality of life in the ancient world. We also hope that this discussion will contribute towards a closer dialogue between archaeology, bioarchaeology and socioeconomic history.

Panel 1.2 (offen)

Wealthy and Healthy? Methodological approaches to non-élite burials

Organisatoren:

Ute Kelp (Deutsches Archäologisches Institut Berlin)
Wolf-Rüdiger Teegen (Universität München)

Vortragende:

wird noch bekannt gegeben

Diskutant:

wird noch bekannt gegeben

Dichotomies are often rejected as misrepresenting the complexities of past societies. This is also the case for the distinction between élite and non-élite parts of the population. In this respect, economical aspects have been considered crucial for the constitution of ancient society: from the determinant for a class-based society to being an oscillation within the stratified pyramidal model of Roman society. In social history current research emphasizes the basic legal inequality in antiquity and a social stratification along the lines of status, honors and life style as opposed to modern time functional divisions. Consequently changes in wealth distribution potentially threaten the social order. Hence income based power relations e.g. performing euergetism may support political integration in a competitive society, but economical changes such as large accumulations result in political disintegration.

This model of social stratification is consistent with ancient sources and related topics in archaeology such as the Roman domus. Yet the analysis of ancient societies beyond the political system, leading actors and élite groups relies heavily on the archaeological record. Abundantly preserved burial sites present a major part of ancient testimonies. But again research on élite grave monuments is rather extensive whilst the evaluation of numerous less conspicuous burials in the Classical world remains wanting.

In terms of methodology quantifications prevailed, which – claiming an often class-based straightforward correlation between dimension and investment to status and wealth respectively – tended to disregard all manipulations of the dead as much as personal choices. Accordingly, the qualitative analysis of graves gained ground taking the social, relational and situational agency into account, but mostly without considering the nature of the postulated urban civic society. Thus, the social interpretation of funerary contexts including grave goods or, generally speaking, of value and its material equivalent in a particular time and place remains challenging.

Applicants are invited to use approaches in various fields of research employing archaeological and anthropological data as well as epigraphical records. Starting points to identify social settings may be health and nutrition, burial practices, variation and standardization in grave monuments, etc. Special interest will be given to medium-range theories taking case-based evidence into account.

Panel 1.3 (offen)

The economic contribution of migrants to ancient societies. Technological transfer, integration, exploitation and interaction of economic mentalities

Organisatoren:

Raffaella Da Vela (University of Leipzig)

Vortragende:

wird noch bekannt gegeben

Diskutant:

wird noch bekannt gegeben

The proposed panel session aims to discuss the impact of migrations on ancient economies. We aim to understand the economic role of migrants in the local communities and their position in the host societies through a wide range of contributions about ancient economic spaces in the Mediterranean and in Central Europe. In particular, we will discuss the function of migration and mobility within the fields of production, exchange and consumption.

In the field of the production, we are going to analyse technological developments and economic growth in host communities following the cultural interaction and the transmission of technological knowledge due to human mobility. Furthermore, we will analyse the social position of the migrants in the work market of their new communities and in the new settled territories. A key aspect will be the contribution of migrants to the production and their networking role for the exchange. The ports of trade will be taken in consideration as a meeting-point of different economic systems. In the field of consumption, we are going to present the coexistence of different economic mentalities, as factors of innovation and conflict in local communities. Consumerism will be taken in consideration to understand dynamics of interaction, integration and segregation. The consumption behavior will be considered as proxy to understand the social identities of migrants and their expressions.

The speakers are asked to compare their case studies to build a common platform of discussion, overtaking chronological and geographical specificities, in the way to discuss more general methodological and theoretical questions: Which archaeological data are suitable to detect the relationships between economic behavior and cultural identities? How did different economic and political systems affect the position of migrants in the local communities and their participation to local and global economies? Which are the effects of different strategies of economic integration of migrants in the host societies on the economic development and on the social stability of local markets and communities? Is our interpretation biased by our modern perspectives or is it possible to contextualize an agent based perception of the economic role of ancient migrants?

Sektion 2

Ökologische Faktoren auf die Wirtschaft: Klima, Landschaft

Panel 2.1 (offen)

The Ancient City and Nature's Economy in Magna Graecia and Sicily


Organisatoren:

Johannes Bergemann und Mario Rempe
(Universität Göttingen)

Vortragende:

wird noch bekannt gegeben

Diskutant:

wird noch bekannt gegeben

The proposed panel focuses on the interaction of ancient cities with their environmental surroundings. Reconstructions of landscapes and paleoenvironments shall be presented in order to shed light on this processes. Landscape Archaeology, especially in cooperation with Natural Sciences offers a wide repertoire of methods for the reconstruction of ancient environments and changing patterns of human-environment interaction. Sites can be contrasted with these reconstructions of their natural environment and be further investigated. A connection of environmental and socioeconomic changes visualizes cultural landscapes, which emerge within the territories of ancient cities in Magna Graecia. Environmental studies are thereby creating a more detailed vision of an area's historical development. Magna Graecia and sicily are of high interest for this question as the coming together of different cultures may have had a chancing impact even on the environment. Unfortunately, comprehensive studies, which consider environment and landscape change in South Italy and Sicily are still rather an exception. The speakers of the panel will present their approaches and results in various case studies in South Italy and Sicily, demonstrating the potential of an interdisciplinary approach to an ancient city and its territory. Thus, the survey projects in Agrigento and Kamarina of the University of Göttingen shall be presented with regard to their insights into settlement patterns and socio-economic processes, but also in connection to their paleoenvironmental reconstructions. The interdependence between landscapes and humans and potential patterns of sustainable actions by the ancient settlers shall receive special attention.

Panel 2.2 (offen)

The impact of rivers on ancient economies


Organisatoren:

Christof Berns und Sabine Huy
(Universität Bochum)

Vortragende:

wird noch bekannt gegeben

Vortragende:

wird noch bekannt gegeben

Landscapes shaped by rivers provide characteristics and specific conditions, which have a great impact on the economic life of people living in fluvial contexts. Archaeologists so far concentrated on rivers as routes of transportation. Primarily, rivers have been considered as a frame for studies on the distribution of commodities. But especially geo-archaeological research has led to a better understanding of the complex effects of rivers on social communities. Significant geomorphic changes of river-landscapes have been proven at many sites. The different conditions of a river – i. e. seasonal (flooding, low water, icing, etc.) as well as on long-term effects (changing river courses, sedimentation etc.) but also altering possibilities of exploitation – force people to live in close relationship with the watercourse. Simultaneously the river provides specific chances for economic activities. It is the aim of the panel to investigate rivers as dynamic factors that structure ancient communities and have an impact on their economic systems. We hope to specifically look at the various functions of rivers as natural resources, the connective links and at the implications resulting from environmental changes. We seek contributions on single rivers as case studies or wider, systematic approaches addressing one or more of the following themes and questions: To what extend are rivers exploited for the supply of fresh water or foodstuff? Are there indications of infrastructural provisions such as harbours or dams? Does the use of rivers as transportation route result in shared patterns of consumption between the communities living along a river course? What types of risks and opportunities result directly from natural and/or anthropogenic changes of river landscapes, both in short- and long-term perspective?

Panel 2.3 (offen)

Coastal geoarchaeology in the Mediterranean – on the interdependence of landscape dynamics, harbour installations and economic prosperity in the littoral realm


Organisatoren:

Max Engel und Friederike Stock
(Universität Köln)

Vortragende:

wird noch bekannt gegeben

Diskutant:

wird noch bekannt gegeben

Mediterranean coastlines are highly dynamic geomorphic landscapes with lateral progradation of up to tens of kilometres in alluvial delta regions during the last 5000 years. After the significant deceleration of post-glacial eustatic sea-level rise around 7000-6000 years ago, a complex interplay of regional and local factors such as vertical tectonic movements, glacial isostatic rebound, sediment supply by rivers and coastal currents, deltaic compaction, and human intervention, led to locally different histories of coastal formation. As the coastal zone provided essential access to food, maritime commerce and colonisation activities, its dynamical nature had a significant impact on the prosperity of ancient communities. In fact, Mediterranean harbours as the gateways to the maritime realm were constantly threatened by gradual sedimentation, tectonic uplift or subsidence, as well as extreme events such as earthquakes or tsunamis. Many harbours became landlocked due to coastal progradation with fundamental repercussions on the political and economic status of ancient poleis.
We invite any contributions studying the influence of the dynamic, physical coastal environment on human communities during Antiquity, may this influence be through gradual, long-term sedimentary or geomorphic processes, or episodic such as through earthquakes or tsunamis. We also invite contributions on any type of ancient human influence on the physical coastal environment including but not limited to the implementation of engineering measures or chemical or sedimentary imprints. All types of contributions are envisaged, including excavation- and field-based case studies, those comprising numerical models, synthesising reviews or advances in scientific methodology and techniques.

Panel 2.4 (geschlossen)

The Riverlands of Aegean Thrace: Production, Consumption and Exploitation of the Natural and Cultural Landscapes


Organisatoren:

Eurydice Kefalidou (National and Kapodistrian University of Athens)

Vortragende:

wird noch bekannt gegeben

Diskutant:

wird noch bekannt gegeben

Rivers were (and still are) a rather defining feature of the geography of Aegean Thrace, both the large ones like the Hebros, the Lissos and the Nestos and the smaller ones like the Kosynthos, the Kompsatos and the Travos. All of them run, more or less, from North to South, i.e. from the Rhodope mountain range via the fertile coastal Thracian plain to the Aegean Sea or (the smaller ones) to lake Bistonis. Their routes, deltas, marshlands, wetlands, dunes and lagoons form a rather complex natural environment which influenced all aspects of life in antiquity, in both positive and negative ways.

For the most part these rivers were vital supports for people and economies. They provided water for people and animals, irrigated the land, facilitated trade and commerce through small vessels that navigated the larger rivers, aided industrial activities, formed a rich area for fishermen and hunters, and offered raw materials such as sand and gravel. At the same time, their deltas and marshlands, especially in periods of flood, created an unhospitable environment, often unsuitable for habitation, causing illnesses like malaria that affected the local population in a variety of ways. Furthermore, these rivers connected the sea and the littoral zone with the hinterland, and thus they allowed the interaction between the Greek colonies on the Aegean coast with the local Thracian tribes, which inhabited the inland part of this region.

Recent research in Aegean Thrace includes two systematic surveys in the deltas of the Nestos and the Lissos, a rescue excavation in the city of Doriskos near Hebros, a project on the harbour city of Ainos on the Hebros delta and a project utilizing spatial technology along river courses. They all adopt a variety of approaches and methodologies: collecting and studying archaeological material, utilizing satellite images, conducting geophysical surveys, employing geoarchaeology and geoinformatics, etc. All projects aim at defining the character of various ancient riverside sites, integrating them into their broader landscape and understanding aspects of exploitation, production, consumption, communication and trade.

Some of the topics that will be addressed are: (a) The reconfiguration of ancient river routes and the settlement patterns that were formed around them; (b) The boundaries of the chora of various cities, towns, villages farmsteads, etc.; (c) The various uses of land and the means of exploitation through time; (d) The density of population in various landscape settings and the movements of (or tensions between) different groups that moved or expanded beyond their original habitation zone due to environmental and economic reasons.

Panel 2.5 (geschlossen)

Halos, a city state on the edge?


Organisatoren:

Vladimir Stissi (University of Amsterdam)

Vortragende:

wird noch bekannt gegeben

Diskutant:

wird noch bekannt gegeben

Ancient Halos, in the south of Thessaly, Greece, was a small polis at a strategic position in a coastal landscape that looks fertile now, but may have been difficult to manage in antiquity. More than a century of archaeological research in the Halos territory and its direct surroundings by Greek, Dutch, British and Canadian teams has produced a dataset of exceptional variety and quality. Much of the area has been surveyed, many sites (including two urban centers) have been excavated, and there are detailed studies of faunal remains, geomorphology and human remains (including DNA and isotope analyses). Together these offer a unique possibility to study the subsistence of a 'city state' in exceptional depth. This is all the more interesting because Halos was not a regular polis. It only had a substantial (50 ha) urban settlement for less than forty years, and may have had no proper urban center for much of its existence – the likely site of the main central place was less than 10 ha at its largest, but that may not have lasted long; it was also uninhabited during some periods. Yet, the area hosts one of the largest known cemetery areas of Early Iron Age Greece, which contains thousands of graves over an area of several square kilometers, but dwindles in the 6th century BCE. 250 years later, the just mentioned large Hellenistic city seems to come out of the blue. The archaeological finds, moreover, suggest strong variations in wealth and food patterns over time. Clearly the demographic, social and economic foundations of this polis were unstable – which was surely not unusual, but is rarely as visible as here. At least part of this precarious situation may be related to the landscape, which was partly very marshy or subject to flash floods and episodes of heavy erosion and soil deposition, and may not have been very fit for agriculture in many areas. Archaeology and isotopes suggest periods of immigration, whereas historical sources indicate Halos was the victim of major moments of warfare, which lead to the destruction and depopulation of the city at least once. Finally the area is regularly hit by earthquakes, the devastating results of which are clearly visible in the archaeological record. In this panel we want to explore the subsistence of Halos from various angles as an exemplary case, to get a better grip on the ways a community in a difficult environment managed to survive and sometimes thrive over almost a millennium.

Sektion 3

Produktion: Landnutzung, Industrie, Technologie, künstlerische Produktion

Panel 3.1 (geschlossen)

Production beyond the palaces: Technological and organizational aspects of LBA ceramic manufacture


Organisatoren:

Natalie Abell and Jill Hilditch
(University of Michigan)

Vortragende:

wird noch bekannt gegeben

Diskutant:

wird noch bekannt gegeben

Shifts in the organization and technologies associated with craft production have long been recognized as inextricably linked to economic change and development. In Late Bronze Age (LBA) contexts, craft production has, until very recently, been seen as an activity closely tied to the Minoan and Mycenaean palaces, and undertaken by specialists or workshops "attached" in one way or another to those institutions. Yet, several recent reassessments of LBA economy have clarified how some production and economic activity took place at the fringes of—or wholly outside of—palatial oversight. Examination of variation in the organization and techniques of ceramic production holds promise for further elucidating the complexity of LBA economies, providing insight into interaction and transfer of technological knowledge between ceramic and other craft specialists, and highlighting variability in how producers did (or did not) respond to the changing exchange patterns and consumer expectations. In addition, despite decades of attention focused primarily on the production of fine and painted wares, recent work has turned to examining coarse, cooking, and even architectural ceramics with a view to explicating where these kinds of wares were produced and what kinds of technologies were employed in their manufacture. Thus, this panel brings together papers focused on these aspects of LBA ceramic production as a means of encouraging comparisons within and between regions, between coarse, cooking, and fineware production, and at different degrees of separation from palatial interest and oversight.

Panel 3.2 (offen)

Organization of space and work: potter's workshops in the Greek World


Organisatoren:

Jon Albers
(Universität Bonn)

Vortragende:

wird noch bekannt gegeben

Diskutant:

wird noch bekannt gegeben

We know hundreds of Greek workshop sites, but only very few are well preserved or investigated entirely – usually we find kilns or waste deposits as indicators for ceramic production. In the past Archaeologists used different approaches to reconstruct the organization of space and work: chaîne opératoire, space syntax, combination of signatures or Roman and ethnographic parallels etc.

This panel plans to present and investigate known or new evidence concerning the organization of the production process by analyzing the sites, products and tools. Examples from the whole Greek World between Iron Age and the Hellenistic period should be considered.

Possible questions are:
- What is the relation between kilns, working and storage space?
- What can we say about the position of typical installations like basins, potter’s wheels etc.?
- Which different kinds of tools or installations were used in which area of workshops?
- Can we interpret different stamps or marks as part of production or trade?
- Can we identify workshops, which are specialized only in single steps of the whole production chain?
- What can we say about the relation between workshops and raw materials (e.g. water supply or clay pits)?

Panel 3.3 (offen)

(Re)Producing images of the divine between Late Republican times and Late Antiquity


Organisatoren:

Marlis Arnhold (Universität Bonn)

Vortragende:

wird noch bekannt gegeben

Diskutant:

wird noch bekannt gegeben

Economic aspects concerning Roman religion cannot only be studied using the extant sanctuaries and under aspects such as consumption, but are essential to all forms of material articulations of cultic practices, such as objects and images. Moreover, they were embedded into the material culture of their respective period of time, even though they may have been reserved for very specific functional contexts. Seeing and perceiving religious imagery therefore cannot be discussed without the analysis of material forms and the production processes which contributed to their creation. Thus the rationalization and economization which affected the production of stone sculpture resulted among others in astonishingly consistent iconographies, motives, and modes of composition which enabled the creation of easily recognizable images of deities. As Marlis Arnhold underlines in her contribution on representations of the Mithras and other deities, these images could nevertheless articulate individual notions of the divine. Katharina Rieger's contribution reviews the prevailing explanations of low costs for standardized and repetitive dedicational objects, and looks for the significance of this economic process for the religious imaginary in Late Republican and Imperial times. Kristine Iara's contribution deals with the city of Rome in Late Antiquity and discusses evidence for the impact of 'budget cuts' on the creation, production and dissemination of these images, previously virtually ubiquitous in the city of Rome.

Panel 3.4 (offen)

Reconstructing Scales of Production in the Ancient Greek World: Producers, Processes, Products, People


Organisatoren:

Martin Bentz (University of Bonn)
Eleni Hasaki (University of Arizona)

Vortragende:

wird noch bekannt gegeben

Diskutant:

wird noch bekannt gegeben

Scholars have many ways, both traditional and experimental, to approximate the scale of craft production, which has always been central to the stury of ancient economies. This panel examines these new methods, some borrowed from other disciplines, for estimating the workshop crew size, the workshop physical space, the time requirements for the chaîne opératoire for each product, the needs of the population for different goods, or the percentage of ancient products surviving to this day. Even Cook's (1959) seminal 1% of ancient ceramics modern survival percentage based on the survival rate of Panathenaic amphorae is now considered an overestimation. These new methods and approaches should help us overcome the paucity of archaeological evidence. By employing social network analysis, individual worker's output, architectural energetics, and production-consumption ratios, we aim to improve our understanding of the scale of craft production. in the ancient Greek world, both in Greek mainland and in Greek colonies in Sicily. Archaeologists and ancient economists are using new approaches to study the ancient economy at a micro-level, taking into consideration several variables, such as raw material procurement, labor investment, cross-craft dependencies, apprenticeship periods, and product demand, to name a few. Our test cases range chronologically from Prehistoric to Classical times, and geographically from Athens, to the Argolid, and Selinunte in Italy. The industries covered are pottery-making, vase-painting, tile works, and monumental construction. This panel will show how the labor investment for tiling a roof or for building a monumental tomb in Bronze Age Greece reveals the economic complexity of ancient societies in craft specialization and workforce mobilization. Moreover, estimating the sizes of ancient ceramic workshops can lead to better reconstruction of the economic cycles of production and consumption, which helps us understand the range of scales of imports and exports. Our discussant, Peter Acton, a distinguished economist, has studied several industries in Classical Athens. With his micro-level focus he has demonstrated how some industries have a competitive advantage over others, either by specialization, or increased personnel, or a branded name.

Panel 3.5 (geschlossen)

Making Wine in Western-Mediterranean
Production and the Trade of Amphorae: some new data from Italy


Organisatoren:

Jean-Pierre Brun (Collège de France)
Nicolas Garnier (Laboratoire Nicolas Garnier)
Gloria Olcese (Sapienza Università di Roma)

Vortragende:

wird noch bekannt gegeben

Diskutant:

wird noch bekannt gegeben

“Wine Production and Trade in the Western Mediterranean during Antiquity: New archaeological, archaeometric, archaeobotanical and biomolecular research on an economic indicator”

The goal of this session is to present both new data and current projects on viticulture in antiquity, on the production and circulation of wine, and on the containers that held the wine. These containers have been recently recovered in the western Mediterranean, thanks to interlinking, multidisciplinary research, involving archaeological, archaeometric, archaeobotanical and molecular-archaeological methods.

The focus of our investigation is Italy, in relation to areas of comparison (Spain, North Africa), with the intent to deepen our knowledge of the transformations to the agricultural landscape in certain sample areas. We also aim to focus attention on wine production facilities, which have until now remained under-studied (such as rock cuts); and moreover we intend to focus on the Mediterranean distribution of amphorae which, as the primary containers of the drink, played an important role in religious, funerary, economic and social life in Antiquity.

The advancement of technical knowledge is gradually solving the old question of differentiating between wine and olive oil production facilities. We knew that the same presses were used for both products and henceforth the identification would be based on other markers such as the presence or absence of oil mills or tanks connected by overflows. But now, systematic water sieving can turn up olive stones or grape seeds, and biochemical analyses in gas chromatography or liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry now provide very reliable results.

A new synthesis on amphorae and production centers is needed, because the rapid evolution of the methods of analysis and their expansion allow both some certainty about contents (sometimes multiple) and even details concerning the type of wine (red or white).

The second part of the session will present some new data related to the production and distribution of wine amphorae - coming from the Tyrrhenian coast of Italy, Spain and Africa - in Italy and the western Mediterranean, the study of which was also carried out using laboratory methods.”

Panel 3.6 (offen)

Building BIG – Constructing Economies: from Design to Long-Term Impact of Large-Scale Building Projects


Organisatoren:

Ann Brysbaert (Leiden University)
Jari Pakkanen (Royal Hollow, University of London)

Vortragende:

wird noch bekannt gegeben

Diskutant:

wird noch bekannt gegeben

The economic growth of modern societies has been closely linked with construction industries: investments, transport infrastructures for materials, and labour-intensive building programmes all have a large impact on local, regional and even global economies. The end results have shaped the built environment of our every-day lives and have often led to an increased quality of life and affluence, though there are many contrary cases as well. In past pre-industrial societies whenever large-scale building projects took place, extensive manual labour was invested from the moment materials were scouted for, extracted, transported, employed and subsequently maintained. Since most ancient societies were based on subsistence economies, important decision-making was a daily balancing act between building work and agriculture. These decisions often influenced strongly the patterns of land use and may have also resulted in circular economic strategies. This session invites archaeological, experimental, historical and ethnographic/anthropological perspectives addressing the socio-economic and political decision-making needed for construction projects to materialize. With economic and technological processes of construction as a focus, we aim to contribute responses to the following questions: 1- How were large-scale buildings constructed from material, logistical and planning perspectives? 2- How and why were these buildings subsequently and diachronically used and maintained by the various groups? 3- What types and levels of resources and investment, human and other, were needed to achieve and sustain these construction projects? 4- Given that construction took place diachronically and geographically more or less worldwide, can we recognise common denominators, and which are these? How can multidisciplinary and cross-cultural approaches further our research in the Ancient Mediterranean? 5- In economic terms, is it useful to quantify the necessary resources, how can it be done, and what can such data tell us?

Panel 3.7 (offen)

Organization of Production and Crafts in Pre-Roman Italy


Organisatoren:

Nadin Burkhardt (KU Eichstätt-Ingolstadt)
Robinson Krämer (Universität Rostock)

Sprecher:

wird noch bekannt gegeben

Diskutant:

wird noch bekannt gegeben

Recent excavations and investigations in the field of workshop structures, such as Gabii, Herakleia, Kroton, Lokroi Epizephyrioi, Naxos, Selinunt and Kyme show the needs and chances for a new discussion of the organization of production and crafts in Pre-Roman Italy. This panel attempts to examine different organizational structures, specializations and typical features of crafts. Parameters and indicators may be the (I) context (independent – attached), (II) concentration (dispersed – nucleated), (III) scale (small, kin-based – factory) and (IV) intensity (part-time – full-time). The contributions of this panel investigate geographical, chronological and functional patterns for different types and contexts of crafts and productions. These may include, but are not limited to: autonomous individuals, household-based productions, workshops for a regional consumption, attached producers within government or sacred institutions or large-scale productions and facilities (note 1). This panel covers a period from the early iron age to late archaic/early classical times and focusses on different functional senses with a concentration on Italy. In analyzing case-studies we aim to give new insights into modes of organization for productions and crafts in Pre-Roman Italy.

Note (1) For the discussion on craft specialization and organizations of production see C. L. Costin, Craft Specialization. Issues in Defining, Documenting, and Explaining the Organization of Production, Archaeological Method and Theory 3, 1991, 1-56; C. L. Costin, Craft Production, in: H. D. G. Maschner – C. Chippindale (ed.), Handbook of Archaeological Methods 1 (2005) 1032-1105; Z. X. Hruby – R. K. Flad (ed.), Rethinking Craft Specialization in Complex Societies. Archeological Papers of the American Anthropological Association 17 (2007). For specializations and organizations of production and crafts in Pre-Roman Italy see e. g. A. J. Nijboer, The Role of Craftsmen in the Urbanization Process of Central Italy, in: H. Damgaard Andersen et al. (ed.), Urbanization in the Mediterranean in the 9th to 6th Centuries BC, ActaHyp 7 (1997) 383–406; A. J. Nijboer, From Household Production to Workshops. Archaeological Evidence for Economic Transformations, Pre-monetary Exchange and Urbanisation in Central Italy (1998); M. Bentz et. al., Das Handwerkerviertel von Selinunt. Die Töpferwerkstatt in der Insula S 16/17-E, RM 119, 2013, 69-98.

Panel 3.8 (offen)

Women and men at work! Entrepreneurs, ateliers and craftsmen in the construction and destruction of Roman tombs


Organisatoren:

Marianna Castiglione (Università di Pisa)
Myriam Pilutti Namer (Scuola Normale Superiore)

Vortragende:

wird noch bekannt gegeben

Diskutant:

wird noch bekannt gegeben

Funerary Archeology is a widely discussed topic that includes the analysis of archaeological and anthropological data and the exam of literary and epigraphic sources. Scholars have mainly studied the connections between the tomb and its evidences and artifacts, to obtain quantitative and qualitative information. Very few attempts have been done to analyze the system of production at the base of the ‘death market’, excepting some epigraphic studies, because of the difficulty to well identify the ateliers in archaeological contexts.

The “archaeology of technology” related to the tombs was strictly linked with the Roman economic history: despite the lack of data, many workers were involved in the ‘funerary economics’ and in all the activities connected to the tombs’ construction and destruction. If we use a “micro-economic approach” and consider only the craftsmen participating in the execution and lying of stone materials, we should mention marble workers, stonemasons, manual laborers, polishers, experts in writing and sculptors. Particular attention should also be given to the people responsible for the ideation and realization of funerary paintings. Furthermore, there were the entrepreneurs, both men and women, sometimes mentioned in ancient sources but usually neglected by modern literature, and finally the commissioners, the most studied component of this flourishing economy – at least until the 3rd century AD. From this period the market decreased, because of the competition with Christian inhumation practices.

Because of this progressive fall of interest and request of “built” tombs, many laws appeared, in order to impede the spoliation of funerary monuments to obtain lime or building materials for reuse. So, the wealthy ‘market of death’ lives a new life and transforms itself in a new successful one, thanks to the reuse of ancient parts from monumental tombs in the building industry, for structural reasons or for symbolic values.

Thus, the panel aims to create a debate on these two phenomena: the production system connected to the tombs’ creation and construction, considering all the people involved and including the female contribution at the question, as well as the reuse of previous funerary materials in the late antique building industry. Selected case studies could allow both the investigation on the specialization and diffusion of technical and artistic knowledge, and the understanding of social, economic and juridical history of the sites.

Panel 3.9 (offen)

Messapia: economy and exchanges in the Land between Ionian and Adriatic Seas


Organisatoren:

Francesco D’Andria und Grazia Semeraro
(Università del Salento)

Vortragende:

wird noch bekannt gegeben

Diskutant:

wird noch bekannt gegeben

Ever since the Bronze Age, the geographical position of Messapia, between the Ionian and Adriatic seas, has enabled the development of relations characterised by continuity within the framework of mobility in the Mediterranean. In the light of the most recent investigations, the panel will adopt a multidisciplinary approach to the regional economy, production and exchange, in a period from the Iron Age to the Roman conquest in the mid 3rd century BC. The panel will focus on certain aspects of the economy in Messapia, with particular reference to bio-archaeological themes (including livestock rearing and the consumption of animal resources), textile production (to be analysed by applying archaeometric methods to residues of fabric) and imports of luxury products from Greek cities and the Greek colonies of southern Italy. The Iron Age, a period when the Salento was at the centre of traffic and migrations that led to the establishment of the Greek settlement of Taranto in the late 8th century BC, will be the focus of special attention. Of interest are the production techniques of the indigenous settlements and commercial exchange, which is seen from an early period, particularly on the shores of the Strait of Otranto. The presence in grave goods of imported prestige items will be investigated with reference to the forms of self-representation adopted by the Messapian aristocracy in both funerary rituals and manifestations of power within the settlements. The variety of religious manifestations in the Messapian world constitutes a particular case study linked to cultural exchanges, which, thanks to the recent discoveries of places of worship, can now be investigated in detail. Important in this regard are the discoveries made in Castro, where the Athenaion – linked to the myth of Aeneas's first landing on the shores of Italy – was identified. In this site, the abundance of votive offerings, the richness of the structures of the cult and the ways in which the rituals were performed all enable us to investigate the investment of resources in the religious dimension, especially the consumption of collective energy in the manifestations of the cult. A further objective is to reconstruct the economic system underlying the cult in Messapian society, considering its relationships with the other peoples of the Mediterranean.

Panel 3.10 (offen)

Contextualizing craftsmanship in the classical world: an "economic" sphere?


Organisatoren:

Mario Denti (Université Rennes 2)

Vortragende:

wird noch bekannt gegeben

Diskutant:

wird noch bekannt gegeben

New methodological approaches and recent finds in archaeological and anthropological fields have been able gradually to soften the visions which limited for a long time (and often continue to do so) the craftsmanship sphere of the Ancient World to the exclusive field of the "production" and the "trade" – i.e., notions belonging to modernist economist conceptions. The critical conscience of the irreducibility and the complexity of the way of thinking of the Ancients, associated to the investigation of historical-political contexts and ideological-cultural elements in which the technological and craftsmanship activities were recorded, help us today to open new chapters on the way to the comprehension of a phenomenon in which ritual sphere, but also requirements, culture and behaviors of the members of aristocracy, have play a role certainly essential.

Panel 3.11 (offen)

Salt, fish processing and amphorae production across the Mediterranean in the 1st millennium BC. An overview of the technological and economic interactions.


Organisatoren:

García-Vargas Enrique, García Fernández Francisco José and Sáez Romero Antonio
(University of Seville)

Vortragende:

wird noch bekannt gegeben

Diskutant:

wird noch bekannt gegeben

The processing of fish resources into marketable commodities and the production of transport amphorae for their distribution were economic activities developed in almost all corners of the Mediterranean in early stages of Antiquity, although more widely known for the imperial Roman times. However, for several decades the study of the archaeological evidence connected to the Greek and Phoenician-Punic worlds has made it possible to demonstrate on a material basis what was in principle only an intuition: that these activities played a prominent role in the Mediterranean economies of the 1st millennium BC. Thus, long before Rome became a key power the fish-processing for consumption and its exportation packaged in amphorae was an important factor not only from the perspective of food supply but also linked to the interaction of technological and mercantile spheres between the main socio-cultural Mediterranean areas.

So far, the analysis of ancient fishing, salted-fish and salt production or the manufacture of transport amphorae have been addressed in a compartmentalized way. This has resulted in a lesser amount of attention being paid on the fluid technological and commercial connections that would had taken place between different regions and cultures, particularly significant from the consolidation of the Phoenician and Greek colonization processes in the central and western Mediterranean between the 8th and 6th centuries BC. The main objective is therefore to reconnect these unrelated processes, cultures and regions, and also explore how these technologies were disseminated among the local communities shaken by the phenomenon of colonial expansion and its subsequent development, modifying the systems of production and exchange of foodstuffs from the Atlantic to the Eastern Mediterranean.

This session proposes an integrated discussion of the state of the art on fisheries, salt production, the manufacture of salted fish by-products, amphorae and, in general, ceramic manufacture technologies on the Phoenician-Punic and Greek worlds during the 1st millennium BC. The panel has been conceived as a framework for updating information on typologies, influences, products, quantifying, technological and economic transfers, chaînes opérationnelles, trade routes or even experimental archeology trials. The main goal is to provide an up-to-date overview of these issues for the entire Mediterranean basin, taking into account significant case studies, as well as to reflect on the diachronic evolution of these activities and their structural transformations during the initial phase of expansion of Republican Rome.

Panel 3.12 (geschlossen)

Pre-modern Industrial Districts


Organisatoren:

Michael Herdick, Angelika Hunold und Holger Schaaff
(Römisch-Germanisches Zentralmuseum)

Vortragende:

wird noch bekannt gegeben

Diskutant:

wird noch bekannt gegeben

The ancient quarrying and mining district of the Eastern Eifel has been the subject of research by the Römisch-Germanisches Zentralmuseum since 1997. Over the years, mining techniques, production of and trade in the valuable volcanic rocks, and settlement structures have all been investigated in detail. The products – primarily basalt lava millstones, tuffstone building material, and pottery – were extensively traded throughout much of Europe for centuries. A research programme named „The origin and formation of an industrial landscape – the ancient quarrying and mining district between the Eifel and the Rhine" was launched to examine the wealth of evidence about the ancient mining economy in the region and its significance for the political establishment of Rome north of the Alps. A series of individual studies contributed to the subject, among them several doctoral theses. The programme was accompanied by the development of the Vulkanpark Osteifel, which received twice an Europa Nostra Award for the valuation of this outstanding industrial heritage. The archaeological research falls into four categories: - the stone industry (basalt, tuffstone, pumice) - the economic centre of Mayen - the pottery production - the rural area. These categories engage with each other and as a whole they allow a full understanding of the district's significance. Currently, the project is completed except research on the pottery production which is just in its final phase. Experimental archaeology, too, continues to investigate the potter's production conditions. Another aspect which has lead to further studies is the waterway transport of the heavy goods. Being an industrial district of supraregional importance, the quarrying and mining district of the Eastern Eifel turned out an excellent case study for pre-modern industrial districts in general. So it provided a model how to study ancient industries: In a long-term view and with a holistic approach, that means taking into account economic, social and settlement aspects. As a consequence, pre-modern industrial districts were integrated into the research field „Wirtschaft und Technik" at the RGZM as a subject of further research. Looking for a comparable district, we started to investigate the ancient pottery centre of Speicher near Trier. It was most likely in a way connected to the Late Roman Imperial residence and therefore offers quite different interesting aspects for research.

Panel 3.13 (offen)

The rise of bling: charting the incredible increase in the consumption of decorative metal objects in the Roman Empire


Organisatoren:

Stefanie Hoss (Universität zu Köln)

Vortragende:

wird noch bekannt gegeben

Diskutant:

wird noch bekannt gegeben

The mass production and consumption of metal objects - and especially of metal objects that were decorative but not essential, such as statuettes, furniture fittings, tableware and decorative parts of dress as well as jewellery – is one of the major differences between the Roman Empire and the periods preceding and following it.

The reason for this is a fairly straightforward one, namely the increase in availability of the raw materials, in part due to new mining techniques, but also due to the increased access to mines that was the result of the spread of Roman control.

Another characteristic is the extremely wide dissemination of these items both in terms of distance as well as in terms most often described as social class or wealth.

This panel seeks to clarify the systems of production and distribution that enabled this phenomenon in order to better understand the mechanisms of cultural supply and demand that form the basis for this ‘explosion’ of metal production during the Roman period.

For this purpose, we would like to invite papers that chart the production and distribution of specific (groups of) objects within the Roman Empire, for instance a particular type of brooch (fibula), inkwell or knife handle.

Other papers welcome would describe the cultural circumstances through which these things suddenly become ‘necessary’, such as the rise of toilet implements described for Britain by H. Eckhardt and N. Crummy (Styling the Body in Late Iron Age and Roman Britain. A contextual approach to toilet instruments, Montagnac 2008).

While the panel would best slot with session 3 (systems of production), it will also address elements of the sessions 5 on distribution and 6 on consumption.

Panel 3.14 (offen)

Craft economy and Terracotta Figurines. Approaching Systems of production through Coroplastic Studies


Organisatoren:

Stephanie Huysecom-Haxhi (CNRS-HALMA - Univ. Lille3)
Antonella Pautasso (CNR-IBAM)

Vortragende:

wird noch bekannt gegeben

Diskutant:

wird noch bekannt gegeben

Since the first discoveries of the nineteenth century, the coroplastic research has undergone a remarkable evolution. For a long time considered as trinkets, and therefore studied mainly from the point of view of the history of art, terracotta figurines are now studied and published scientifically, according to specific methods of analysis and integrated approaches. Particular attention has been paid in the last twenty years to production techniques and to the reconstruction of the operational sequence, as well as to the human factor behind the crafted object. Archaeologists also have had the benefit of several ethno-anthropological studies that provide thought-provoking theoretical frameworks for an understanding of the economic and social dimensions of craft production in antiquity. The economic approach to coroplastic production encompasses different aspects, such as: — The acquisition and the processing of the clay. — The techniques, sequences and organization of the production. — Trade, diffusion and distribution. — Demand or consumption and their effect on the production. The proposed panel aims to discuss the economic and social facets of the coroplastic production through some examples addressing one or more of the abovementioned aspects and concerning the Greek world from the Archaic to the Hellenistic period.

Panel 3.15 (offen)

Villas, peasant agriculture, and the Roman rural economy


Organisatoren:

Annalisa Marzano (University of Reading, UK)

Vortragende:

wird noch bekannt gegeben

Diskutant:

wird noch bekannt gegeben

The appearance and spread of villas both in Roman Italy and abroad has been at the centre of a vast range of studies on the Roman economy and society. From Marxist approaches, which saw in the Roman villa based on slave labour a unit denoting a particular type of agricultural exploitation and 'mode of production' to studies aimed at understanding how settlement hierarchy and modes of landownership changed over time, archaeological evidence from excavations and from field surveys has been central to the debate. In the past, the spread of large villas in Republican Italy has been seen as a phenomenon which displaced from the land small and medium landowners and thus contributed to Rome's socio-political problems from the time of the Gracchi onwards. Recent studies, however, have in fact stressed that large villas and farms were not at variance with each other. The productivity of peasant farmers and the level of competitiveness they had on the market has also been the object of important recent investigations and reassessments. Time seems thus ripe for a more organic evaluation of how the 'villa economy' and the 'peasant economy' operated and to what degree the two were integrated.

This panel proposes to investigate if and how villas and small and medium farms were part of two productive and distributive systems which supported each other (e.g., by giving access to agricultural processing facilities; by growing complementary crops). In the villa category, special discussion will be devoted to imperial estates and how these played a role in influencing the market's demand, with possible trickle down effects on large and small agricultural estates. The main focus of the panel is Roman Italy, but proposals for papers that investigate this phenomenon also in provincial territories are encouraged. Submission proposals from early career researchers are particularly welcome.

Panel 3.16 (offen)

The logistics and socio-economic impact of construction in Late Republican and Imperial Rome


Organisatoren:

Dominik Maschek (University of Birmingham)
Ulrike Wulf-Reidt (Deutsches Archäologisches Institut)

Vortragende:

wird noch bekannt gegeben

Diskutant:

wird noch bekannt gegeben

Paradoxically, the Roman building industry is both one of the most intensely studied and most widely ignored fields in Archaeology and Ancient History. Generations of archaeologists have devoted themselves to the excavation, recording, preservation and interpretation of Roman architecture. However, they traditionally focused on questions of architectural style, cultural significance and political symbolism of Roman buildings. The question what drives a society to freeing mighty forces and resources for huge building projects and how such building achievements could change the perception of social groups was rarely discussed. However, over the last 20 years a specialized field of research has emerged which approaches the complex logistics of Roman architecture by means of quantitative analysis. It has been understood that only the hypothetical modeling of both labor force and building costs can lead to a valid estimate of a given building's importance in its respective historical context. Pre-industrial construction techniques and the management of building materials and human resources can be put into perspective with the help of 19th century building manuals. Based on the observation of building materials and toolmarks, the construction effort can be estimated. Correlating this estimate with the available space, the probable maximum of workers can be assigned to the construction process, thus also providing a framework for the organization of the building site and the most probable duration of the building project. The demand for resources and manpower can finally be translated into hypothetical building costs by considering Roman wages and prices. This sheds an entirely new light on the planning, logistics and administration of building sites. Furthermore, it can also contribute to a better understanding of social organization and their changes. Taken together, all these aspects and analytical steps lead us to new and highly complex models of the building industry in the Roman Mediterranean. The panel aims to demonstrate the value of this methodology by drawing upon a wider range of relevant case studies which date from the Late Republican to the Imperial Period. By looking at the results of recent and ongoing projects, we will also discuss future challenges and perspectives for this kind of research within the wider context of studies on the Roman economy.

Panel 3.17 (offen)

Light in context. Productions, solutions, consumptions and representations of the light and its devices for and in ancient spaces


Organisatoren:

Maria Elisa Micheli (University of Urbino 'Carlo Bo')

Vortragende:

wird noch bekannt gegeben

Diskutant:

wird noch bekannt gegeben

Artificial lights have marked deeply the cultural, economic and technological system of ancient societies. Materials, tools, objects, fuels expressed different relationship between products and costumers as well as between public and private destinations in the ancient spaces. Therefore artificial lights are good indicators to filter and explain socio-cultural phenomena. The present panel discusses selected study-cases from Greek and Roman world and also compare them to modern lighting productions, in order to analyze the manufacturing process, functional and contextual uses, rituals and perceptive practices of lighting systems and devices.

Panel 3.18 (offen)

Strictly economic? Ancient Serial Production and its Premises


Organisatoren:

Arne Reinhardt (Universität Heidelberg)

Vortragende:

wird noch bekannt gegeben

Diskutant:

wird noch bekannt gegeben

Which factors cause and determine ancient serial production? As an early stage within today's mass production, serial production takes a central place in manufacturing and the industrialization of the modern era. In the modern era, the underlying factors for serial production are high demand and rationalization. But how does this concept translate for antiquity? What other factors must we take into account (may these be of economic, aesthetic, ideological, or other nature) that could have shaped and influenced ancient form(s) of serial production? Though there seems to be little doubt that the serial production of artifacts played an important role in ancient cultures, research on this topic is still in its infancy considering how complex this phenomenon was. Likewise, only few attempts have been made to characterize and define the specific characteristics of ‚serial production' in antiquity. The panel proposed here attempts to address the questions mentioned above by discussing coherent groups of ancient material under the premise of ‚serial production', focusing on companion pieces and multiple sets of homogenous artifacts of corresponding origin (i.e. same authorship, place of origin (‚workshop'), date, size, material, technique, and/or style). In order to avoid confusing ancient forms of serial production with modern concepts, each paper should be based first and foremost on a close study of an ancient group of materials, which provides the foundation for further thoughts and critical discussion of the resulting significance for our understanding of ancient serial production and its relations to ancient economies. Interesting questions might be: Does ancient serial production necessarily imply the (re)production of large numbers and is it always connected with supraregional commerce? When is this the case, and why? How did traditional crafting techniques encourage new methods of serial production and how were they altered (standardized, improved upon, made ‚more economic') by the high demand that only serial production could satisfy? How did production for local usage contexts (such as sanctuaries and cemeteries) or cultural technologies (such as architecture) form the basis for serial production, and in turn, influence regional trade? Suitable groups of materials for innovative research into these questions include Graeco-Roman sculpture and sculptural decoration, coroplastics, ceramics, and many more.

Panel 3.19 (offen)

The role of water in production processes in Antiquity


Organisatoren:

Elena H. Sánchez López (Universidad de Granada)

Vortragende:

wird noch bekannt gegeben

Diskutant:

wird noch bekannt gegeben

"Water is a precious natural resource (...). It has a wide range of applications in our daily life and it is a driver for economic prosperity. Water can be used for energy production and it is necessary for the development of industrial and agricultural activities" (Water JPI SRIA H2020).

Water has been highlighted as a precious natural resource and an essential element for live. Archaeological, historical and anthropological studies have analysed the water supply systems in different periods and regions. But, by contrast, very few has been said about the uses given to this water, apart from baths or fountains display in Roman times.

However, we may draw attention to the fact that water is fundamental for the economic prosperity of any society, as it is vital in the development of many economic activities, both now and in the past. The objective of the panel about "The role of water in production processes in Antiquity" will be to analyse the use of water in productive activities from Iron Age to Late Antiquity.

The purpose is to analyse the use of water in craft and production activities, and the archaeological evidences related to the water management across the Mediterranean Region. Within those consuming water activities might be highlighted for example different building activities, food production, pottery making, metallurgy, mining or textile manufacture. In those productive activities, water was sometimes one of the elements used in the making process, in others cases it was used for the cleansing of raw material or facilities, but it could also be the water-power what was used.

In summary, water management studies can (an might) go further than just analyse the water supply and distribution systems (wells, cisterns, and aqueducts, later on). It is essential that we ask (ourselves or the archaeological record) which was the use given to the water. In this case, the panel will focus on one of the less highlighted uses: those related to the production processes.

Panel 3.20 (offen)

The production of portrait statuary in Roman cities. An economic factor?


Organisatoren:

Thoralf Schröder (Universität München)

Vortragende:

wird noch bekannt gegeben

Diskutant:

wird noch bekannt gegeben

Portrait statues are one of the most important features of Roman visual culture. They were set up in nearly every province of the Imperium Romanum. So obviously there was a high demand for¬¬ this kind of sculpture. However, aspects of production and economics rarely played a role in the archaeological discussion of these artefacts.

Based on specific stylistic characteristics scholarship has detected several production centers for different types of sculpture. The best known case certainly is that of the marble sarcophagi. With Rome, Athens and Dokimeion at least three large-scale and exporting production centers have been identified. Needless to say, many more workshops existed and some of them also exported their sarcophagi. For Athens there is evidence that even most of the objects were produced to be exported. Consequently, the “sarcophagi industry” must have played a significant role in the economic landscape of the city.

For other stone artefacts such considerations were rarely undertaken. For portrait statuary it was often tacitly assumed, that they were produced for the local requirements. This might be true for the majority of cases, but there is evidence that at least some prominent workshops produced for export also. Maybe even some sorts of brands existed. There is a small number of “schools” that signed their works more or less frequently in the Imperial period (e.g. Athens or Aphrodisias). Did they also do this in order to advertise their products, and thus for economic reasons? The examination of these aspects of local and export production could therefore provide even more enlightening insights into the role of sculpture as an economic factor. If we furthermore consider the full range of the sculptural production of workshops in a prominent city like Athens (e.g. ideal sculpture, grave and votive reliefs, portraits, sarcophagi etc.), the impact on the economy must have been much larger than acknowledged to date.

In this panel the focus is directed on portrait sculpture, because this was a consistently requested commodity within the Roman empire. Many different questions arise in this context, for example: Which role does the production of portrait statuary play within the urban industrial and economic landscape? How important is export business? Can we determine regional or chronological differences in dealing with these objects? After taking a fresh look at various aspects of this topic we can perhaps re-evaluate the economic role of portrait sculpture within the Roman city.

Panel 3.21 (offen)

Farmhouses in Macedonia from the 4th century. B.C. until the Roman era: rural landscape and rural economy


Organisatoren:

Evangelia Stefani und Polyxeni Adam-Veleni
(Archaeological Museum of Thessaloniki)

Vortragende:

wird noch bekannt gegeben

Diskutant:

wird noch bekannt gegeben

Excavations carried out in Macedonia during the last two decades have brought to light villas, farmhouses and stockbreeding installations dating from the 4th century B.C. to the Roman era. The image that we have now about the countryside of the large cities developed in Macedonia in the Classical era and the subsequent periods has diversified considerably compared to what we knew to date. The countryside of Northern Greece is full of farmsteads, whose inhabitants live and produce according to the economic requirements of the rapidly developing urban centers but also according to the possibilities offered by the microenvironment of each region. The farmhouses are sometimes along major roads on east-west axes, sometimes near big cities and in other cases in remote, rural regions, even in semi-mountainous areas. The economic activities were developed according to their natural landscape and the emphasis was given on crops, livestock, or the craft production and trade. Concerning the agricultural production we can remark a wide variety of activities from the cultivation and storage of cereals and pulses to beekeeping, wine-making and other relevant activities. Livestock production has been found to be exercised both as a permanent parallel work of large farmhouses and also as an activity of herders who moved their herds to higher grounds during summer, while spending winter in villages around the valley. Also we have found aquaculture facilities. In crafts there is evidence for stone andmetalprocessing. Moreover, monetary treasures that have been found in several farmhouses of Macedonia indicate the anxiety of the residents in periods of political uncertainty and economic instability and their study provides useful information for both the coinage of the kingdom of Macedonia and monetary circulation. The panel aims to detect the development of the rural economy and the rural settlements in Macedonia from the Classical era to Roman times, in order to identify not only the different economic characteristics of each era but also the changes that took place within the wider social and political framework. Since the heyday of the Macedonian kingdom and its big urban centers until the transformations of the Roman period, the rural economy of the area is examined as a way of understanding the historical features of these periods.

Panel 3.22 (offen)

Local styles or common pattern books in roman wall painting and mosaics


Organisatoren:

Renate Thomas (Römisch-Germanisches Museum, Köln)

Vortragende:

wird noch bekannt gegeben

Diskutant:

wird noch bekannt gegeben

This panel will concern the question whether it is possible to identify local workshops in Italy and the roman provinces or whether the organization of a workshop with a changing constellation of painters and the common use of pattern books does imply an almost universal stylistic development throughout the whole Roman Empire. Do the economic resources of the workshops have an influence on the quality of the painting and for example the choice of special expensive colors? Up to which degree can changing dependences be observed between wall painting and mosaics concerning forms and patterns.

Panel 3.23 (offen)

Unfertigkeiten am Bau. Folgen finanzieller Engpässe, organisatorischer Zwänge oder ästhetischer Ignoranz?


Organisatoren:

Natalia Toma (Deutsches Archäologisches Institut)
Frank Rumscheid (Universität Bonn)

Vortragende:

wird noch bekannt gegeben

Diskutant:

wird noch bekannt gegeben

Nahezu jedes griechische oder römische Gebäude, dessen aufgehende Architektur wenigstens ausschnittsweise erhalten ist, weist Unfertigkeiten auf. Diesem an sich wohlbekannten Phänomen sind bisher kaum umfassende Studien gewidmet worden. Auch Lauters Aufsatz ,Künstliche Unfertigkeit. Hellenistische Bossensäulenʻ (1983) und Kalpaxis' Monographie ,Hemiteles. Akzidentelle Unfertigkeit und „Bossenstil" in der griechischen Baukunstʻ (1986) haben vor allem die Definition von Unfertigkeit und ihr Potential für das Entstehen akzeptierter neuer Architekturdetails im Blick. Die Unfertigkeiten einzelner Bauten werden zudem in zahlreichen Architekturpublikationen behandelt, und immer wieder wird nach individuellen Gründen, die es hier und da auch tatsächlich gegeben haben wird, für die jeweilige Unfertigkeit gesucht: Ein Bauherr kann verstorben sein, ein Kaiserbesuch stand an, die Prioritäten für die Nutzung der vorhandenen Ressourcen änderten sich etc. Das Phänomen der Unfertigkeit tritt jedoch zu oft auf, als daß es insgesamt mit solchen Einzelbegründungen zu erklären wäre. Abgesehen davon, daß nach wie vor zu fragen ist, was zu welcher Zeit als unfertig galt oder als neue, aus Relikten des Werkprozesses hervorgegangene Form akzeptiert wurde, ist also nach ,Systemfehlernʻ in allen Bereichen des antiken Bauwesens zu suchen. Im einzelnen ergeben sich folgende Fragen, die in den Vorträgen des Panels übergreifend oder anhand von Fallbeispielen aufgegriffen werden sollten: Welche ursprünglichen Unfertigkeiten wurden seit wann nicht mehr als Mängel angesehen oder sogar als erwünschte neue Architekturdetails akzeptiert? Mit welchen Begriffen und/oder Modellstücken wurde bei der Auftragserteilung festgehalten, bis zu welchem Grad der Bau vollendet sein mußte, um abgenommen werden und in Funktion gehen zu können? Gibt es Unfertigkeiten, die schon in der Planung etwa für weniger sichtbare Details oder Nebenseiten vorgesehen waren, um Bauzeit und -kosten zu verringern? Wie groß war die Kostenersparnis, für die man Unfertigkeiten in Kauf nahm? Ist es also denkbar, daß fehlende finanzielle Mittel zum Akzeptieren bestimmter Unfertigkeiten führten? Wieviel Zeit war zu sparen, wenn letzte Arbeitsschritte unterblieben? Begünstigte die Organisation der Baustelle und womöglich die an sich effiziente Spezialisierung innerhalb des Baubetriebs gewisse Unfertigkeiten? Bis zu welchem Grad beeinflussten die Unfertigkeiten den materiellen und ästhetischen Wert eines Bauwerks?

Panel 3.24 (offen)

Quantifying Ancient building economy

Organisatoren:

Cathalin Recko und Michael Heinzelmann
(Universität zu Köln)

Vortragende:

wird noch bekannt gegeben

Diskutant:

wird noch bekannt gegeben

In recent years, the study of ancient construction has focused more and more on setting the different aspects of building into an economic framework. Not only construction processes and the organization of building sites are now examined in more detail, but also the quantification of building materials, labour-time and number of employed workmen (skilled and unskilled) are receiving increasing attention due to their potential to shed light on the scale of a building project and its impact on the overall economy. The goal of this panel is to bring together different approaches to the study of building economy, ideally from a wide range of chronological contexts.

Sektion 4

Ressourcengewinnung: Bergbau, Technologie, Umweltverschmutzung

Panel 4.1 (offen)

Roman mining: dimensions, scale and social and territorial implications


Organisatoren:

Brais X. Currás (Coimbra University)
Oscar Bonilla Santander (Universidad de Zaragoza)

Vortragende:

wird noch bekannt gegeben

Diskutant:

wird noch bekannt gegeben 

Research on ancient mining has evolved in recent decades from the traditional technological studies to a broader historical view. Nowadays, the study of Roman mining is carried out taking into account its territorial dimension, social and economic implications and juridical aspects. The purpose of this session is to bring together the different visions of Roman mining that are currently being developed in European research. We would like to create a space for discussion on ancient mining landscapes which addresses the current debate on the impact of mining on the economy of the Roman Empire. From a territorial approach we intend to advance in the study of the forms of work organization in the mines, the structure of settlement, and to understand how mining evolves between the end of the Republic and the High Empire.

Panel 4.2 (offen)

Mining Landscapes


Organisatoren:

Frank Hulek (University of Cologne)
Sophia Nomicos (University of Münster)

Vortragende:

wird noch bekannt gegeben

Diskutant:

wird noch bekannt gegeben

The economic importance of raw material exploitation, especially metal mining, for communities in antiquity has long since been addressed, but only during recent decades have scholars increasingly focused the material remains. These include not only the primary mining remains such as underground workings, process residues and installations for beneficiation, but also habitational sites and infrastructural remains that emerged in the course of exploitation.

In view of the fact that mining can contribute or even stimulate changes of a given economic system of a society, a perspective beyond technological aspects in order to better understand these interrelations seems necessary. Consequently, taking into account also the secondary structures, such as agricultural installations, burial sites, sanctuaries or infrastructural remains may display the networks that contributed to the success of ancient mining operations. Also, the occupation of raw material deposits by foreign communities has left traces in the literary and archaeological record. Such operations necessitated the introduction of new technologies as well as administrative measures. To identify and describe indications of this process in the archaeological record by, for example, addressing questions of technological transfer seems a promising approach. Moreover, on a landscape level the question of the ecological imprint and thus of the sustainability of raw material production in antiquity may be addressed.

The intention of this panel is to provide an insight on existing and emerging research on landscapes that were distinctly transformed by mining. It aims, furthermore, at discussing how mining could affect not only the natural but also the cultural landscape. By focusing on select case studies the intention is to identify the material characteristics of such areas, to highlight and explain differences and to discuss possible recurring infrastructural and organisational patterns.

Panel 4.3 (offen)

From the quarry to the monument. The process behind the process: Design and Organization of the work in ancient architecture


Organisatoren:

Adalberto Ottati (Sapienza University of Rome)
Maria Serena Vinci (Université de Bordeaux Montaigne)

Vortragende:

wird noch bekannt gegeben

Diskutant:

wird noch bekannt gegeben

The project and the organizational aspects of the work represent the first fundamental steps to reach a good final product within the economical and constructive complex system of a building's setting up. It deals with processes hardly decipherable and that we can understand only after an accurate observation and analysis. The skilled workers are a crucial element, guarding the technical knowledge and expertise about extractive and constructive working processes that guarantee the successful work-out of the "cantiere di costruzione". Within this context, the discussion will focus on two main topics: - Quarry marks or notae lapicidinarum - Carving lines in architecture and on artifacts The complexity of the extraction processes and of the storage, trade, control and accounting procedures determined the need of a sort of tracking code: quarry marks consequently generated a sort of code to track the materials from the extraction point to their final placement. At the same time, the carving lines represent guidelines useful to the building planning and positioning of stone and marble elements. In this way, marks and carving lines stand as two aspects of the three-dimensional materialization of the project and organization processes within the building activities. In this context, the skilled workers use systems to communicate and transmit their knowledge: these systems are actually difficult to interpret, but they had to be clear and easily accessible to them. This session focuses on a wide range of subjects covering different chronological ranges and geographical areas. The goal is to set up a debate deepen our knowledge of the construction systems and to identify differences in working and transmission procedures of technical expertise by skilled manpower. It would be of the most interest to outline the system of connections existing among the workshops. Indeed, in any age, there must have been a sort of network linking the quarry to the monument in a bilateral way. Finally, to analyze and trace the production process of ancient architecture to the notae lapicidinarum and carving guidelines will allow to reach original and innovative considerations on workshop's networking employed in the extraction and constructive activities.

Panel 4.4 (offen)

The exploitation of raw materials in the Roman world: a closer look at producer-resource dynamics


Organisatoren:

Dimitri Van Limbergen and Devi Taelman
(Ghent Universit)

Vortragende:

wird noch bekannt gegeben

Diskutant:

wird noch bekannt gegeben

Pre-industrial societies were all dominated by agricultural production. What distinguishes them is the importance of the non-agrarian sector of the economy against that agricultural background. While not escaping the limits of an organic economy, the Romans stand out for having developed a wide range of manufacturing businesses and services (e.g. construction, fuel supply, metal- and pottery production). This development stimulated the widespread and large-scale extraction of raw materials like stones, ores, clay and wood. Compared to other premodern economies, raw material consumption rates in the Roman world were thus high. The way in which both renewable (wood) and non-renewable (stone, minerals, metal, clay) resources were exploited is an important determinant for the functioning and longevity of a pre-industrial economic system. Even in a territory as large as the Roman Empire, such activities put considerable pressure on the land. Strategies of resource-exploitation and conservation were thus essential in dealing successfully with this situation in the long-term. The question of how the Romans dealt with the uncertainty of natural reserves and the unpredictability of consumption is very much at the core of the debate on the non-agricultural ancient economy. The issue revolves around whether their decisions and actions merely reflect a 'substitution of resource sources' mentality – that is, exploiting a particular resource until depletion, after which new possibilities were simply explored further afield – or if optimal extraction strategies may be identified. In other words, how rational were the Romans in their exploitation of raw materials, and to which extent did they counteract over-exploitation for economic and ecological reasons? With this panel, we would like to explore if, when, where and how the Romans pursued a harmonious balance between the limited availability of a particular resource and the law of supply and demand. We are hereby particularly interested in identifying measures that show environmental concerns in their management strategies. This may be through specific case studies on both smaller and larger territorial scales, or by reflecting on the issue on a more theoretical level. We especially welcome proposals that focus on innovative approaches and/or draw on inter-disciplinary datasets (geo-and bioarchaeology, paleoecology, etc.).

Sektion 5

Distribution: Handel und Austausch, Monetarisierung, Netzwerke, Transport, Infrastruktur

Panel 5.1 (offen)

The Friction of Connectivity – Greco-Roman trade in archaeology and texts


Organisatoren:

Peter F. Bang (University of Copenhagen)
Mark L. Lawall (University of Manitoba)
John Lund (The National Museum of Denmark)

Vortragende:

wird noch bekannt gegeben

Diskutant:

wird noch bekannt gegeben

Throughout the 20th century, archaeologists developed ways of applying quantitative data to traditional questions of scale of production, fluctuating levels of imports etc. But historians on both sides of the old primitivist-modernist divide often relegated archaeology to a largely illustrative role vis-à-vis text-based history. Interest in New Institu¬tional Economics (NIE) has opened up significant new pathways for a productive collaboration between archaeology and history investigating the ancient economy, since NIE emphasizes the development of institutions to reduce transaction costs or points of friction in economic systems. Such interest encourages both historians and archaeologists to redefine the questions being asked of the archaeological record and the texts. An important task for an institutional history of ancient economies is the identification and evaluation of those factors adding to the cost or effort of transactions. Distance alone and the relative costs and risks associated with overland and maritime transport have long been recognized as factors well suited to archaeological inquiry. Already in the 1970s and 1980s, economic geography was suggesting ways that different economic systems could modify the basic distance decay model. Such modifications do not depend on geography alone. Historians have begun to identify and continue to debate the impact of institutions such as systems of measurement, long-distance communication, taxes, and political alliances in increasing or decreasing the 'distance' between transactors. Sophisticated ways of modeling ancient travel are increasingly being compared with patterns in the archaeological record. Other factors, not least information asymmetry, also slow or impede transactions. Texts, especially papyri and to a lesser extent stone inscriptions, shed some light on the changing transactional friction caused by such uncertainties. Study of economic artefacts including transport amphorae, coins, ceramic epigraphy, and even the architecture of market locations are equal if not greater contributors to this line of research. The papers in this session will bring specialists in the historical, text-based study of ancient economies with particular interests in transaction costs and friction together with specialists in transport amphorae, coins, and architecture.

Panel 5.2 (offen)

Tolls and ancient economies


Organisatoren:

Gabriele Cifani (University of Rome "Tor Vergata")
Julien Zurbach (ENS, Paris)

Vortragende:

wird noch bekannt gegeben

Diskutant:

wird noch bekannt gegeben

Tolls and customs duties imposed on road-users and goods played a crucial role in pre-modern economies, but in ancient economic history they have been considered mainly as part of the main income of the state and not often in terms of their direct or side-effects on mobility and exchange The importance of tolls, however, has never been fully evaluated or debated in recent reconstructions of Early Iron Age and Archaic Mediterranean economies, which have focused mainly on trade circuits and activities of production without giving due consideration to the systems which controlled the distribution of goods and the mobility of people. In archaeological literature, the Archaic Mediterranean is often considered to be a kind of open ground as far as cultural encounters are concerned. We would like to draw on recent work (notably Moreno Garcia, ed., Dynamics of Production in the Ancient Near East 1300-500, 2015, and recent books by the two presenters of this proposal), and to reconsider the true economic factors linked to interconnections and the development of early states in the Mediterranean between the Late Bronze Age and the Archaic Period. The objective of this panel is to offer fresh perspectives by comparing diverse categories of sources concerning the role of tolls and customs in ancient Mediterranean economies. Literary sources in all languages, the evidence of day-to-day practice in Egypt and the Levant, and the archaeological evidence of routes and territorial control for the purposes of imposing taxes will be discussed, as well as ethnographic data. In particular, the panel will consider the evidence from Egypt, the Near East, Archaic Greece and Italy.

Panel 5.3 (offen)

Economy and the Maritime Cultural Landscape of Greece


Organisatoren:

Michael Curtis und Richard Takkou-Neofytou
(University of Nottingham)

Vortragende:

wird noch bekannt gegeben

Diskutant:

wird noch bekannt gegeben

This double panel session will look at the ancient coastal settlements of Greece from the perspective of the maritime cultural landscape. These settlements were economically important, and often, the first points of contact for seafarers seeking trading centres that played a part in the development and growth of local, regional and wider ranging economies. In addition to trade and commerce the coastal settlements also were often the first point of contact for political and religious influences, supported in part by the movement of people as traders, travellers and as migrants. Their roles sometimes changed in times of war and peace and they became places where technological advancement can be seen as it was used to change and manipulate the local natural environment.

This panel is split into two parts. The aim of the first panel session is to move away from the traditional approach of looking at coastal sites individually and to consider sites and monuments, both terrestrial and underwater, as part of a wider cultural landscape. The session will explore the economic, political, religious, social, technical, industrial and environmental aspects of this landscape.

The second panel takes the maritime cultural landscape theoretical perspectives looked at in the first panel, and applies them to a regional and diachronic case study: namely, the Ionian Islands and its adjacent regions, during the Late Bronze Age up to the Classical Period. The panel will look to explore the reasons behind multi-regional shared cultural traits in terms of the material culture, deathscapes, and social aesthetics – produced via distribution. By looking at the archaeology of this region scholars are starting to pin point rough markers that facilitate social change/adoption, but further, how the sphere of maritime economic activity overlaps the sphere of cultural affiliation networks.

Panel 5.4 (offen)

Trade in ancient Sardinia


Organisatoren:

Salvatore De Vincenzo (Università degli Studi della Tuscia)

Vortragende:

wird noch bekannt gegeben

Diskutant:

wird noch bekannt gegeben

The themes of this panel are the modes of trade in ancient Sardinia. What are the trade routes involving ancient Sardinia? Which areas and cities in Sardinia are most involved in these exchanges? Which products are exchanged and how is the island's production affected by trade? Which patterns are observable in importing and imitating foreign goods, which were carried to the island by traders? How do these aspects vary over time, from Archaic times to Late Antiquity?

This analysis on ancient trade in Sardinia will be carried out predominantly based on pottery contexts. But of course, other trade goods like iron ore, of which Sardinia possessed great amounts, thereby shaping trade routes from the first millennium BC onwards, will be taken into account as well. The chronological phases in question range from Archaic times to Late Antiquity, comprising transactions of indigenous people, Carthaginians, and Greeks, with particular regard to the trade in the Roman era.

Various aspects will be covered, one of the presentations analyses the trade of Archaic and, more in general, pre-Roman Sardinia, with particular reference to the Greek pottery trade. A second presentation will focus on the trade in Sardinia since the early Roman presence on the island until the middle Imperial age. Special attention will be given to Nora, one of the most significant centres of the island from the Archaic age onwards, analyzing the key elements related to production and trade of the city between the middle and the late imperial age by reviewing the material culture.

Another speaker will analyze data resulting from an examination of the most significant attestations of cults on the island, with particular regard to coroplastic artifacts offered as votives in a phase of transition from the Punic to the Roman era, in order to highlight the commercial and cultural dynamics of these sacred contexts.

The last presentation will examine the Late Antiquity trade on the island, especially with regard to 4th to 7th centuries AD along the central west coast of Sardinia by taking into consideration especially the materials found during the excavation of Cornus.

Panel 5.5 (geschlossen)

Beyond the gift: the economy of archaic "Greek colonisation"


Organisatoren:

Lieve Donnellan (VU University Amsterdam)

Vortragende:

wird noch bekannt gegeben

Diskutant:

wird noch bekannt gegeben

Interactions between Greeks and native populations were very complex, not only at the cultural but also at the economic level. Systematic studies of these economic interactions and of broader frameworks concerning these questions are, however, still underdeveloped. We propose to focus on how "Greek colonization" changed local economic strategies and affected local societies. What questions do we need to ask to grasp the full complexity of the phenomenon (L. Foxhall)? We also investigate local economic trajectories, for example in the Black Sea (R. Posamentir), where contact with the Greeks stimulated the production of certain goods on an almost industrial scale, but left other aspects of production and consumption remarkably untouched. Colonization and culture contact can also be related with a notable rise in the production of transport amphorae in the Mediterranean. Amphorae for the transportation and storage of agricultural produce became widespread in the Aegean of the 8th century (A. Kotsonas) as well as in the Bay of Naples, and the latter region also saw the installation of a flourishing perfume trade (L. Donnellan). The production of new pottery types, and especially their now perished contents, indicate that, in the Early Iron Age to Archaic period, important transformations of local economies took place. Through this process, once peripheral areas were drawn into overseas networks of production, exchange and consumption, thus creating a new Mediterranean cultural geography. Studies on the institutional side of transforming economies of "Greek colonization" are also underdeveloped, and weight standards are a case in point. The "Chalkidian" colonies of the West developed a shared weight standard of 5.7 grams for coins (P. van Alfen). Whereas the unity created through shared weight systems is clear, local differences also created disunities suggests the impact of local economies and institutions. The case studies convincingly demonstrate that previous studies of the economy of "Greek colonization", in terms of gift giving do not account for the complex changes and non-linear developments towards more formal forms of economic exchange. The modes of economic interaction in the colonial landscapes of the Mediterranean and the Black Sea need to be studied beyond "the gift" and beyond traditional divisions of cultural and economic centers and peripheries.

Panel 5.6 (offen)

Ceramic Evidence of Commerce in the Southern Levant in the Roman, Byzantine and Islamic Periods


Organisatoren:

Tali Erickson-Gini (Israel Antiquities Authority)

Vortragende:

wird noch bekannt gegeben

Diskutant:

wird noch bekannt gegeben

The session will highlight ceramic vessels as evidence for trade and commercial links in the Southern Levant. These may include, for example, evidence of Nabataean ceramic unguentaria in the aromatics trade in Roman period, wine jars and wine production in the Negev in the Byzantine period, molasses production and jars in the Mamluk period etc.

Panel 5.7 (offen)

Regional exchange of ceramics– case studies and methodology


Organisatoren:

Verena Gassner (Universität Wien)

Vortragende:

wird noch bekannt gegeben

Diskutant:

wird noch bekannt gegeben

Pottery vessels and other ceramic objects constitute important sources for issues of trade and exchange in antique societies as they are available in great quantities and as their provenance often can be determined by archaeological or archaeometric methods. Most studies on exchange of ceramics concentrate however on aspects of long-distance trade as differences between wares and/or types produced in different, far distant regions can be recognized more easily. This fact together with the psychological fact of the greater attractiveness of these items might have lead to an exaggerated perception of goods of oversea trade in the archaeological record.

In contrast aspects of regional exchange between neighbouring cities have not found the same attention in the field of Mediterranean archaeology though they might give important insights into the problem of regional connectivity and also have had greater importance than normally assumed, as can be attested by the analysis of the finds from Velia. Certainly one of the reasons of this deficit can be found in the difficulty to distinguish ceramics produced within one region clearly and unambiguously as they often share the same repertory of shapes or decoration styles. Thus fabric analyses play an important role for the identification of provenance.

The proposed panel comprises case studies from different areas and different periods of the Mediterranean, focussing on the methodological approach and the possibilities to identify regional exchange.

Panel 5.8 (offen)

The production and distribution network of the bay of Naples: from a regional to a Mediterranean perspective


Organisatoren:

Marco Giglio (Università di Bologna)
Luana Toniolo (Parco archeologico Pompei)

Vortragende:

wird noch bekannt gegeben

Diskutant:

wird noch bekannt gegeben

Campania has always played a key role in the agricultural and ceramic production in the Mediterranean well before the Romans arrived. The foundation of the colony of Puteoli (194 BC) was a crucial moment of change for the region since its harbor from the mid-second century BC. became an essential node of density for the Roman trade routes, especially the ones directed to the Eastern Mediterranean. Puteoli came to be the hot spot where all the foodstuff produced in the Phlegrean fields, in Neapolis and the Vesuvian area was gathered and then traded towards Rome and the main harbors. The area was well-known for its wine production, transported in locally produced amphorae, and for its fine ware (Campana A and at a later time fine ware, both from Puteoli and the bay of Naples). From this period onwards, this area became one of the most important productive and trading centers of the Roman world as far as regards wine and fine pottery, a secondary tradable good. At the turn of the century, the products of this area were widespread all along the existing trade routes, as confirmed by the large diffusion of pottery and foodstuffs coming from Campania and recovered in Spain, southern France, Cyrenaica, Greece, Syria and Palestine and towards most of the areas located along the Germanic limes or in the northeastern provinces (especially in castra as Oberaden and Haltern). Even if the main trade routes have now been identified, many questions still need to be answered, as far as regards the quantification of the Campanian products in these regions, the social forces involved in these exchanges, the secondary trade routes and the potential consumers of the products. The panel aims to analyze the ceramic production in the bay of Naples from the late Republican to the early Imperial period and its distribution across the Mediterranean, through sea-routes or internal road and viceversa, to investigate the main products and foodstuffs imported in the Campanian centers.

Panel 5.9 (offen)

Economy and Cultural Contact in the Mediterranean Iron Age


Organisatoren:

Martin Guggisberg und Matthias Grawehr
(Universität Basel)

Vortragende:

wird noch bekannt gegeben

Diskutant:

wird noch bekannt gegeben

The panel will focus on economy as a driving force for cultural contact. It will debate the interconnectivity of economical and cultural zones in the Mediterranean Sea and beyond, especially on its Eastern and Western shores. The Ancient World has long been understood as a cluster of cultural entities that interacted. When historians and archaeologists acknowledged that the concept of 'culture' as a stable entity is fundamentally problematic, a larger variety of factors have come into consideration. 'Culture' is now seen to be fluid in nature and to have fuzzy edges. It circumscribes a network that has an ever-changing amount of connections to other networks, making it difficult to delineate extensions or boundaries. In this debate economy can offer a down-to-earth approach of studying interregional and intercultural exchange. Economical networks can be elucidated through the mapping of resources, trade routes and the traveling objects themselves. Studying economy in the environment of cultural contacts or vice versa, means to lay bare the interfaces between networks and to follow connecting lines into the core of 'culture'. Contributions to this panel should tackle the questions of resources and trade routes (1), of commodities (2) or of settlements as interfaces (3): (1) Where did the trade routes start, run and end? What boundaries or borders were crossed? How was information about supply and demand transmitted along the routes? (2) Finally attention can be given to the commodities themselves: What was traded? Which objects traveled afar? How were they enacted as ostentations of cultural interaction? (3) How did settlements act as interfaces between different economical and cultural zones? Could a settlement provide exclusive or cheaper access to resources? What did render a settlement an attractive meeting point?

Panel 5.10 (offen)

Ingots of metals


Organisatoren:

Norbert Hanel (Universität zu Köln)

Vortragende:

wird noch bekannt gegeben

Diskutant:

wird noch bekannt gegeben

Indicators of metal trade within the Roman Empire and beyond In the middle of the ‚chain of operations' (chaîne opératoire) in a broader sense, where the various technological, economic, historical and social steps are reflected – starting with mining activities/raw material exploitation and ending with the metal final products – ingots are a welcome archaeological type of find. The preserved or sometimes only documented items are the carriers of different metals and their routes can nowadays often be followed from the smelting sites to craftsmen and consumers within the Roman empire. The ingots themselves offer a wealth of information ranging from the knowledge gained from natural science methods, especially concerning the provenance (lead isotope analysis, trace element analysis, etc.), from the forms of the ingots, the different situations of their discovery and find locations up to the numerous epigraphic elements (moulded and chiseled inscriptions, stamps and graffiti). In the context of this discussion, ingots of important metals (gold, silver, brass, copper, lead, iron) are to be presented for the first time in comparison to the framework conditions of the Imperium Romanum. Can we suppose differences between precious metals (gold, silver) and other metals (copper, lead, iron) during transport? Gold and silver ingots are missing, for example, in the numerous shipwrecks of the Mediterranean sea as well as in the Atlantic. Since the ore deposits spread over different provinces, questions arise about the distribution of the ingots in local, inter-regional and long-distance trade. Not always it was possible to choose low-cost sea transport; fluvial and overland-transport must kept in mind. Ports of trade are important as starting point, intermediate and/or terminal stations. We have to assume a network of different merchants (negotiatores, mercatores) including maritime (Mediterranean navicularii, Channel/North Sea ? moritices) and fluvial shipowners (caudicarii, nautae). Even transport of lead to India is attested by ancient authors (Plin. 34, 163; peripl. M. Erythr. 49; 56). Last but not least: How can we reconstruct a widespread distribution of metals within the Roman Empire apart from the main routes of trade ?

Panel 5.11 (offen)

Politics of value: new approaches to early money and the state


Organisatoren:

Elon Heymans (Tel Aviv University)
Marleen Termeer (Leiden University)

Vortragende:

wird noch bekannt gegeben

Diskutant:

wird noch bekannt gegeben

As one of the most enduring icons of economic life, money has been a common feature and central focus in complex societies from antiquity to the present. Arguably, it gained weight as a key feature of Mediterranean economies in the course of the first millennium BCE, mostly in the form of coinage. But money is more than just coin, and its significance more pervasive than just to the strict sphere of what is usually known as "the economy". This session explores how a more inclusive understanding of early money sheds new light on both ancient economies and the relation between money and the state.

Money was sanctioned for use and its value was constructed through exchanges and payments in a range of specific contexts, such as religion and cultic institutions, cultural and colonial interactions, elite strategies, military or economic expansion, and in the articulation of political messages. The use of money (whether metal bullion, coin, or other 'money-stuff') was part of political and social strategies, being subject to what has been termed 'the politics of value' (Appadurai 1986).

Against this background, money has been regarded one of the more prominent means for political entities – states – to assert themselves, i.e. by controlling the issue of coinage and exploiting them as media for political messages. It is therefore hardly surprising that money and its rise to prominence in the embedded economies of the ancient Mediterranean have been predominantly associated with the state, in theoretical opposition to the market (Hart 1986). We wish to subject this assumed relation between the spread of early forms of money and the state to debate.

For this session, we are interested in critical perspectives on the relation between money and the state, including the issue and spread of money by individual actors or social groups. Examples could range from money-stuff regulated or appropriated by the state, to coinages unrelated to state authority. Our focus is not on coinage as a material category within a specialized discourse, but on early money in its wider social settings and the question what it can tell us about the organization of communities. We welcome contributions that focus on these issues in any part of the Mediterranean and/or neighbouring regions, from the Bronze Age to late Antiquity.

Panel 5.12 (geschlossen)

Revisiting the Roles of Roman Mediterraean Ports


Organisatoren:

Simon Keay (University of Southampton)

Vortragende:

wird noch bekannt gegeben

Diskutant:

wird noch bekannt gegeben

Over twenty years ago in 1997 Xavier Nieto proposed a new interpretation of the role played by Roman Mediterranean ports, putting forward a model that that emphasized distribution and re-distribution at the expense of cabotage. He argued for a hierarchy of ‘main’ and ‘secondary’ ports, as well as direct relationships between distant ‘main’ ports, and the regionally based dependence of ‘secondary ports’ upon the ‘main ports. These ideas were based upon his belief that the way in which homogeneous or heterogeneous cargoes were stored on shipwrecks provides us with a clue as to whether a cargo was loaded at a main or secondary port.

This model has made a very important contribution to our understanding of the organization of Roman Mediterranean commerce. Since then, however, continued research into ports, shipwrecks and their cargoes and epigraphic and historical records means that the time is ripe to further explore his concepts and their implications for our understanding of Roman Mediterranean commerce. In particular, new research suggests that the notion of ‘main’ and ‘complementary’ cargoes is perhaps not as clear-cut as it might at first appear. Also, the sheer density of coastal sites involved in ship-based activity would appear to be at odds with the binary concept of main and secondary ports. The time is ripe, therefore, for building upon and enriching earlier research into the roles into Roman Mediterranean ports.

This panel is based upon research being undertaken by the ERC Advanced Grant funded Rome’s Mediterranean Ports (RoMP)/Portuslimen project. It is an inter-disciplinary project that is analyzing archaeological, geo-archaeological, historical, epigraphic and iconographic evidence from a range of some 32 early Imperial ports from across the Mediterranean. The character, development and roles of ports, as well as their administration and connections, are the main focus of the research. The papers that are presented here will address issues that are central to offering a more nuanced reading of port functions. All the papers work from the belief that ports should not be viewed simply as self-evident inter-connected nodes. They argue instead that they should be understood as being embedded within a series of interlocking port-systems composed of a complex hierarchy of sites at the regional level. In this context, the value of such concepts as transshipment, entrepot, roadstead and hubs are looked at in terms of the available archaeological evidence from the port systems of Rome, Tarraco and Narbo. Furthermore, the structure of commerce and trade, the roles of their performers involved, and the cycle of mediation followed by traded goods from production and consumption will also be discussed. These papers will also explore the articulation between the archaeological evidence (including the epigraphy of merchandise) and the written sources for understanding trade patterns. There will also be reflection on research into later periods which have promoted more complex patterns of port hierarchy that are also relevant to the debate.

Panel 5.13 (geschlossen)

Networks at Work: Trade and Transport of Roman Building Materials in the Mediterranean


Organisatoren:

Lynne Lancaster (Ohio University)

Vortragende:

wird noch bekannt gegeben

Diskutant:

wird noch bekannt gegeben

This session focuses on the different modes of medium- and long-distance trade and transport of building materials, such as roof tiles, bricks, timber, and stone. The goal is to understand better the overlapping factors that affected the development of supply networks over time as the Roman Empire expanded, developed its infrastructure, and eventually shifted its focus eastward from Rome towards Constantinople. Much of the evidence for trade in building materials comes from shipwrecks, which allow a glimpse into the types of cargos that were carried on various sized ships. Recently discovered shipwrecks carrying building materials contribute to a growing database of such finds that goes well beyond the material collected in A. J. Parker's seminal work, Ancient Shipwrecks of the Mediterranean and the Roman Provinces (1992). Moreover, previously known wrecks are being reassessed with an eye towards determining the agency behind the seaborne transport network of building supplies and assessing the changing patterns of connectivity over the long term. Supplementing the evidence from shipwrecks are the results of archaeometric studies using new and more accurate methods, such as isotopic analysis, trace element analysis, as well as more traditional petrological methods, all of which are revealing much about the origins and movement of volcanic ash, marble, and terracotta building materials around the Mediterranean. Tree ring analysis has even provided a means of pinpointing sources of building timber revealing hitherto unknown patterns of distribution. Literary, inscriptional, and legal sources then yield insight into management of public and private forests for supplying the timber. Written sources also contribute evidence for the infrastructure that allowed such medium- and long-distance trade to develop. Papyri document the means used by the imperial administration for the extraction and transport of precious colored stone from the Eastern Desert of Egypt and reveal a complex interplay between the administration, the military, and local governments. Taken together with quarry marks, such documents allow a deeper understanding of the nature of the imperial stone supply system in this corner of the Empire. Finally, the Marzamemi "Church Wreck" provides a glimpse into the provision of stone building elements as the priorities of the imperial administration shifted with the rise of Christianity. The cargo raises new questions about the organization of the building industry during this period of transition. By employing a variety of sources of evidence relating to different types of building materials, the papers in this session set the stage for a broader discussion of the changing role of the distribution and transport networks within the areas of the Roman Empire bordering the Mediterranean and of their relevance for the broader economy.

Panel 5.14 (offen)

Trade and Commerce in the Harbour Town of Ostia


Organisatoren:

Alice Landskron (University of Graz)

Vortragende:

wird noch bekannt gegeben

Diskutant:

wird noch bekannt gegeben

Manifold evidence for trade and commerce have come to light in Ostia: inscriptions, images on mosaics, reliefs etc.

Epigraphic evidence and images provide information regarding many club houses and guilds, as well as private financing of public buildings such as baths, sanctuaries, and public gathering places. The mosaics of the Piazzale delle corporazioni, the court of the guilds, which is situated in the Area sacra, provide unique and comprehensive information on the economic growth and trade in the harbor town and, further afield, in Rome. It can be identified as a unique example for the documentation and organization of commerce and trade in Ostia, highlighting its importance as a hub city. This area was intended as a place of interaction of mercantile and sacred events.

Furthermore, the large number of archaeological and artistic remains which feature different kinds of work, or spatial areas in which occupations were practiced, provide excellent information on how society in Ostia and beyond reacted to the demand for craft and trade, and how such commerce was represented both communally and individually. Researchers have recognised in this a new social class that was developed in Roman society, showing proud individuals who were well accepted as skilled craftsmen and professionals since they played an important role within society. Numerous guilds and guild houses were established in Ostia since early imperial times. Often, liberti became affiliated with guilds and collegia in order to enhance and strengthen their social prestige. There is epigraphic evidence of about 60 collegia in imperial times, most of them situated along the main streets.

The aim of the panel is to discuss what kind of trade and commerce is represented in written and visual sources, and what information these sources provide about the people who were involved in the economic processes of production and especially of distribution in Ostia.

The proposed panel deals with contributions on visualizations as well as epigraphic evidence in the context of trade and commerce in Ostia. Papers could also deal with people or individuals involved in trade and commerce, with forms of representation of merchandising, with the function of guilds, or with infrastructural facilities. Furthermore, questions regarding the value of specific kinds of trade and commerce within Ostian society could also be addressed.

Panel 5.15 (offen)

Greek and Etruscan Vases: Shapes and Markets


Organisatoren:

Dimitris Paleothodoros (University of Thessaly, Volos)

Vortragende:

wird noch bekannt gegeben

Diskutant:

wird noch bekannt gegeben

The communis opinio regarding the diffusion of Attic painted pottery privileged the workshops of the Athenian Kerameikos and claimed that foreigners and non-Athenian Greeks bought whatever was produced without discrimination. A number of recent studies, however, have given rise to the awareness that workshops organized their production in order to fulfill specific demands from clients and that agency rested with traders and consumers as well as producers. Much of this recent work has elucidated the mechanisms of adoption and commercialization of specific shapes aimed at the Etruscan and Campanian markets. This session aims at broadening the spectrum by also taking into consideration other areas of the Mediterranean world (northeastern Italy, mainland Greece, the Italic world). Central are the use and the role of imported vases in a variety of contexts, although tombs predominate by necessity, and the way these imports interact with local production. The aim of the session is to explore the fluidity of use and meaning of Athenian vases in different contexts; how shapes and subjects are negotiated between consumer and producer; and how middlemen and networks of contacts and exchanges are operative in the process of popularizing vase shapes and types of decoration.

Panel 5.16 (offen)

Men, Goods and Ideas traveling over the sea: Cilicia at the crossroad of Eastern Mediterranean trade network


Organisatoren:

Eugenia Equini Schneider (Sapienza University of Rome)

Vortragende:

wird noch bekannt gegeben

Diskutant:

wird noch bekannt gegeben

Thanks to its specific geographical positiion, at the cross-roads of the most important sea and land routes, in a necessary point of transition and interconnection between Syria, Cyprus and Egypt, Cilicia has always played a distinctive role within the context of cultural and commercial exchanges in the mediterranean area. In particular,during its romanization, that gradually took place and was subsequently intensified with the constitution of the province, were of fundamental importance the commercial relations with various areas of the empire and in particular with the Eastern Mediterranean, which were substantially and constantly maintained until the first Byzantine age. This area of Anatolia has recently become in the last years, object of a renewed interest on behalf of Turkish and International universities and research institutions. Aim of the panel will be the assessment of the present knowledge on production exchanges, trade and transport in the Mediterranean , analyzing and discussing new diachronic evidence of the network of Cilicia's relations and outlining an exhaustive picture of the changes involving the region throughout the centuries in particular as a result of large-scale economic and social processes. The definition of the sea and land-routes that connected the coastal settlements of Cilicia to other regions of the Mediterranean basin will be defined through the integrated use of underwater research, archaeological and geophysical investigation about the harbors' basins, study of the production facilities, analysis of material culture and numismatic evidence. This will provide a great amount of information about the role played by the region - both as a production center and a market place – within the network of the ancient Mediterranean trade-routes, implementing data concerning Roman and Byzantine port basins and creating standard samples for comparative use by other research programs underway in Cilicia and in eastern and southern Turkey.

Panel 5.17 (offen)

New approaches to seaborne commerce in the Roman Empire


Organisatoren:

Thomas Schmidts (Römisch-Germanisches Zentralmuseum Mainz)
Martina Seifert (Universität Hamburg)

Vortragende:

wird noch bekannt gegeben

Diskutant:

wird noch bekannt gegeben

Empire Seaborne commerce in the Roman Empire is characterized by an outstanding performance and efficiency. Archaeological remains testify trade routes reaching from Egypt to Britain. Roman traders also stretched out to India and Sri Lanka in order to profit from a lively spice trade. Principally well informed by literally and epigraphic sources, our knowledge about the functioning and structural organization of the seaborne commerce structures admits us to address important players, e.g. the navicularii / naukleroi. On the one hand, Roman legal texts are attesting much information about comestible goods like agricultural products, especially grain used to support the city of Rome. On the other hand, the ancient testimonies miss details about the more practical aspects and the effectiveness of the seaborne commerce in the Roman Empire. According to the annona Urbis, imperial public commerce was of great importance, but in general trade and shipping probably more or less organized according to the rules of private commerce. The relation between social networks and commerce might have played a dominant role not only regarding the impact of migration but also regarding the tradesmen's community building over a long period in the Roman provinces and beyond. The high quantity of preserved shipwrecks, cargoes and harbors datable in Roman imperial times strengthen the meaning of archaeology by providing answers to crucial research desiderata, trying to understand the principles of ancient Roman seaborne commerce. One main issue in understanding Roman sea trade would be to define the parameters for sea routes, shipping capacities and cargoes. In order to present new approaches to seaborne commerce in the Roman Empire, the panel mainly contributes to the archaeological records regarding to the reconstruction of ancient ships and their containers and the use of GIS-based data analyses to follow ancient sea routes. In general, the archaeological discussions are dominated by pottery, metal and stone finds. On the other hand important merchandises as grain or textiles are unconsidered due to the preservation conditions. Also the reuse of amphorae that has been discussed during recent years should not be underestimated. Finally, the role of the seaborne commerce for understanding the ancient economy should be discussed in this panel, with special attention to the "new institutional economics".

Panel 5.18 (offen)

Trust, Branding and Fakes in the ancient World


Organisatoren:

Anja Slawisch (University of Cambridge)

Vortragende:

wird noch bekannt gegeben

Diskutant:

wird noch bekannt gegeben

Considerable research effort has been devoted by archaeologists to the idea of standardisation, both in terms of manufacturing techniques and by identifying the standard volumes and sizes for containers, such as amphorae. Recent work has also been devoted to mapping these standardised vessels and hence establish the networks by which they travelled. But less work has focussed on how these 'standard' vessels functioned from a material perspective in the everyday sphere of interaction. In essence, how was trust between strangers established in the vastly dispersed markets of the ancient Mediterranean? This panel will showcase different forms and concepts of trust, examples of commodity branding in the ancient world and the production of fakes (the inverse of market trust systems) in order to address some underlying dynamics of interaction in ancient economic systems. Contributions are sought from all areas of research on ancient societies (i. e. ancient history, numismatic, material culture studies, literature, provenance studies etc.) that offer a fresh approach to the phenomenon of trust, commodity branding and the appearance of fakes in ancient markets: • What are the processes or key features lying behind the creation of trust around certain products or commodities? • What factors promote the introduction of new brands, their maintenance and sustainability? • How can we characterise the relationship between commodity branding and mass-production? • How often were brands abandoned and what are the dynamics or lifespans of certain brands? • To what extent can we detect copies and/or forgeries and how did the market cope with these? Under what of circumstances do they occur? • Can we define stylistic choices as brand management? Potential themes for discussion include: • Enhancement of trust in specific products through the creation and maintenance of branding. • Different forms of commodity branding (makers marks, stamps, signatures, coinage, other imagery). • Creation of sub-markets or alt-markets, profiting from selling imitations, forgeries and copies of prized and familiar commodities.

Panel 5.19 (geschlossen)

Roman transport systems I: "New insights on the Roman Transportation Systems. New applications and methodologies for a better understanding of the transportation networks and the movement of commodities"


Organisatoren:

Pau De Soto (Universidade Nova de Lisboa)

Vortragende:

wird noch bekannt gegeben

Diskutant:

wird noch bekannt gegeben

The analysis of Roman infrastructures in order to understand the transport systems and the territorial organisation is an indispensable way to know the benefits and shortcomings of the transportation system created in Roman times. It is well known that the Roman Empire built the first big transport network. This overwhelming task included the construction of an enormous road system, and the building of river ports and maritime harbours, all connected and dynamically articulated. Such a huge effort aimed to create an integrated economy covering all the Roman provinces. In the last years, the growth of new digital tools have allowed the scientific community to work and develop their research studies on Roman transportation and commerce from new points of view. The use of new methodologies and approaches to these analyses is offering brand new data that seems to be very useful to obtain better reconstructions of the Roman transport conditions. Between these new approaches we can find the modelling of travel costs and times or the analysis of the road networks morphologies in order to obtain new knowledge about the territorial configuration. The results of such applications provide us with new information to understand the distribution of commodities, product competition and the role of the ancient economies, such as Rome, in the configuration of the historical territories. The ability to see graphically and quantitatively those results which until now they could only be guessed, can open new perspectives and justifications to the speeches made about the Ancient world up to now. At the same time, it is possible to observe how the construction of a complex communication network meant an important element for the integration of new territories to the Roman provincial model. For a better understanding of the morphology of these infrastructures, Network Analyses and other approaches are applied to understand the configuration and performance of the Roman networks in these territories. In this research context, with this panel we want to offer a public space where researchers can share their experiences with the use of this new methodologies and approaches applied to Roman transport and create a positive debate about their optimal application and generation of results.

Panel 5.20 (geschlossen)

Roman transport systems II: "Rivers and lakes in the Roman Transport Economy"


Organisatoren:

Koenraad Verboven (Ghent University)

Vortragende:

wird noch bekannt gegeben

Diskutant:

wird noch bekannt gegeben

Most modern scholars follow the opinion of ancient authors that, given the right hydrological and geographic conditions, transport by river (and lakes) was many times more efficient, profitable and cheaper than land transport. Archaeological data showing the transport routes for non-perishable items, such as ceramics and stone cargoes, seem to confirm this idea. The epigraphically documented prestige and influence enjoyed by the Barge-skipper guilds (the nautae) in Narbonensis, Germania Superior, and the southern parts of Lugdunensis further support that picture. And yet the natural efficiency of river and lake transports is far from self-evident. River basins are not naturally connected. Waterfalls, narrows, and rapids obstruct navigation. Levels and flows depend on unpredictable rainfall causing floods and torrents. River banks erode. Sediments change the course of rivers. In the north, rivers and lakes may freeze in winter. In the south, many run dry in summer. Strong currents greatly hamper upstream traffic. Territorial and administrative divisions, as well, pose problems. Differences in regulation, control procedures, and water management practices affect conditions on different stretches of the same river. Tolls and fees burden profitability. Social and political unrest pose threats as barges are vulnerable to attacks by land from brigands, raiders or soldiers. Rivers and lakes, moreover, are useless without a connecting land road network. Without investments in the construction and maintenance of roads the contribution of riverine trade to overland transport networks is doomed to remain limited. Not surprisingly, rivers remained complementary to roads in early modern Europe until 'national' policies improved and regulated navigation. Without tow-paths, canals, portages, locks, connecting roads, ports and warehouses, rivers offer only a marginal contribution to trade. Riverine transport routes are as much man-made as roads are. What does this imply for the supposed efficiency of river and lake transport in the Roman period? In this panel we want to discuss the material and institutional conditions that supported this.

Panel 5.21 (offen)

Trading of Copper in the Early Iron Age Mediterranean and beyond


Organisatoren:

Veit Vaelske (Humboldt-Universität Berlin)

Vortragende:

wird noch bekannt gegeben

Diskutant:

wird noch bekannt gegeben

Many regions of the Mediterranean dispose of some small copper ore deposits that potentially would have been sufficient to cover the demand of the local polities during EIA. Therefore, in case local archaeological data hint to continuous imports of copper from large mining districts like Faynan (Jordan), Skouriotissa (Cyprus) or Rio Tinto (Spain), this would indicate well-established distant trade relations and also international division of labour. This approach to investigate Early Iron Age economic behaviour is promising, since copper is one of the few commodities of the Early Iron Age, which can be provenanced by application of archaeometrical or archaeological methods. One paradigm for these macro-economic interrelations is the longstanding trafficking of Faynan copper to Southwest Greece that was recently detected (Kiderlen et alii 2016). 1. The panel intents to map the current state of information on the economic cycles (peaks and lows) of prominent EIA mining areas and correspondingly their regional market shares in the Mediterranean as evident from archaeological and archaeometrical research. 2. Furthermore, the panel looks for case studies of the social structures behind and the spatial organisation of copper-trails. 3. Once copper was delivered it needed to be paid with other commodities. During the lectures and discussions of the panel we are looking for hard archaeological evidence for these commodities that would help us to reconstruct the bilateral, triangular or even more complicated trade circles.

Literature: Moritz Kiderlen, Michael Bode, Andreas Hauptmann, Yannis Bassiakos, Tripod cauldrons produced at Olympia give evidence for trade with copper from Faynan (Jordan) to South West Greece, c. 950–750 BCE, in: Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports 8, 2016, 303-313 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/2352409X/8

Panel 5.22 (offen)

The archaeology of cross-cultural trade: multi-disciplinary approaches to economic and cultural exchange at Naukratis


Organisatoren:

Alexandra Villing (British Museum)

Vortragende:

wird noch bekannt gegeben

Diskutant:

wird noch bekannt gegeben

Commercial exchange between people of different cultures has long been a topic of scholarly interest, yet like all trade and exchange, its quality, quantity and socio-economic implications are notoriously difficult to grasp in the archaeological record. The aim of this session is to explore and debate the possibilities and limitations of multidisciplinary approaches to the topic, taking as a case study the current reassessment of one of the most pivotal locations of ancient cross-cultural trade: Naukratis. The Nile Delta has long been a contact zone between Egypt and the Mediterranean world, channelling people, goods and ideas between Europe, Asia and Africa. The trading port of Naukratis, established in the 7th century BC as the earliest Greek settlement on Egyptian soil, was a key hub for such exchange until the 7th century AD. It thus provides an ideal basis for charting long-term patterns of exchange while affording close-up views of individual praxis and experience of interaction. At the same time, Naukratis is exemplary for how present-day knowledge has been shaped – and compromised – by heterogeneous and serendipitous bodies of evidence filtered through selective frameworks of interpretation. It is only recently that a critical reassessment of 19th and 20th century scholarship alongside new archaeological work has begun to reveal a more complex, in depth picture of a pluri-ethnic harbour town, home to diverse international communities, which played role in regional and 'global' networks of trade and exchange for well over a thousand years. Papers in this session will explore different methodologies and perspectives to investigate the port city of Naukratis as a hub and conduit of intercultural trade and as a multi-ethnic community. Their objective is twofold: presenting the results of new research, they will chart the port's diachronic development and role in wider Mediterranean (Greek, Roman), African (Egypt, Libya?) and Near Eastern (Levantine) networks and examine the agents and processes involved in trade and exchange, from the role of religion to the impact of technological transfer. On a more general level, they aim to provoke discussion about the role of archaeological, geo-archaeological, technological, historiographic and culture-historical approaches in teasing out economic history from the 'archaeological archive'.

Panel 5.23 (offen)

Weighing the absence Premonetary exchange systems between the Mediterranean and Central Europe


Organisatoren:

Lorenzo Zamboni und Paolo Rondini
(University of Pavia)

Vortragende:

wird noch bekannt gegeben

Diskutant:

wird noch bekannt gegeben

The Classical and Hellenistic periods are usually linked to the introduction and increasing use of coinage, along with the emergence of mints within the main cities of the Mediterranean world. However, the earliest urban civilizations of South-central Europe show some delay in adopting a monetary system, although maintaining regular commercial relationships with many Mediterranean cultures (i.e. Greeks, Etruscans, Phoenicians). In some cases, other ways of trading seem to be preferred before the complete adoption of round coinage. A complex picture is provided by the archaeological record, including bartering, the trade of luxury items, and even the widespread use of stone and bronze standards, such as semifinished weights, lumps and ingots, both with or without engraved signs. The fragmented cultural framework of Northern Italy seems to play a crucial role in this process of transition, as from the harbours, emporia and markets that characterize the region from the second half of the VIth cent. BC we have many examples of encounter between different economies, namely Greek, Etruscan, Italic, Celtic and, later, Roman. The main issue of the proposed panel are: - to trace the different introductions of coinage in ancient Italy, stressing regional differences and chronological gaps; - to outline the proto-currency phenomena, including various preroman weighing systems, how they could communicate, and what kind of tools were adopted (for example precision balances); - to investigate long-rage interactions, with a focus on cultural and commercial relationships with Alpine and Central European regions, and also on agency, meant as the roles played by different social actors in trading and cultural exchanges; - to infer possible causes (cultural, social, historical) that may have caused the delay in the adoption of coinage systems in certain regions, carefully avoiding outdated prejudices on presumed inferiority or backwardness of some ancient populations; It will also possible to question the relevance of certain categories of trade and exchange, usually underestimated because of their material invisibility, such as salt, timber, husbandry, secondary products, slaves etc. One last aspect concerns possible symbolic and aspects of some objects related to premonetary commerce (for example the presence of aes rude as 'Charon's obol' in funerary contexts).

Sektion 6

Konsumption: Alltags- und Luxuskonsum, Abfall, Recycling, Ernährung

Panel 6.1 (offen)

Culinary traditions in an entangled world: continuities, innovations and hybridizations in Mediterranean culinary practices (8th – 5th centuries BC)


Organisatoren:

Ana Delgado und Meritxell Ferrer
(Universitat Pompeu Fabra)

Vortragende:

wird noch bekannt gegeben

Diskutant:

wird noch bekannt gegeben

Material cultures and daily practices play a central role in the invention and (re)production of identities, politics and economics in the context of historical experiences of migration and displacement. Following this premise, the aim of this session is to analyze daily practices and materialities, especially those related to food –the way of cooking and food preparation as well as its consumption–, in the construction, manipulation and negotiation of social identities, power relations and economies of production and exchange in different Mediterranean colonial contexts. Through different study-cases this session wants to explore the continuities, innovations and/or hybridations experimented by several Mediterranean communities between 8th and 4th centuries BC, relating them with the economic, political and social dynamics occurred in their specific contexts, the construction of new foodscapes as well as their local and global networks.

Panel 6.2 (offen)

The eternal message of marble: prestige, symbolism and spolia in the Western Roman provinces


Organisatoren:

Virginia García-Entero (Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia, Spain)
Diana Gorostidi (Rovira i Virgili University, Spain)
Anna Gutiérrez (IRAMAT-CRP2A, France)
Olivia Rodríguez (University of Seville, Spain)

Vortragende:

wird noch bekannt gegeben

Diskutant:

wird noch bekannt gegeben

Marble was a noble material most used in Antiquity. Since late-Republican times, the use of all sorts of marbles (used here in the large sense of "decorative stones" or marmora) became fashionable in Rome and, in particular since the Imperial Age, it was specially sought of to be used in architecture and the plastic arts. Yet besides its technical advantages, its use also hide economical, ideological or even political associations which strongly defined their demand and use throughout the Roman era and shaped the European conception of this material for evermore. With the closure of the quarries and the reduction of more global markets due to the decline of the Roman Empire, recycling Roman artefacts became a key part of the economic processes related to material procurement for architecture as well as the artistic production. But it is also well known that spolia also carried out a powerful meaning as symbolic relics from the past. Therefore, studies on relocation and trade, retouch and imitation of stone artefacts, predominantly in precious local or exotic marmora, configure a network of multidisciplinary research, from archaeometry to fine arts and philological studies. The Iberian Peninsula's case shows that, next to the imperial marbles, marmora from the Western Provinces such as the Hispanic Almadén de la Plata (Baetica/Lusitania), Estremoz (Lusitania), Santa Tecla (Tarraconensis), or even those apparently out of the primary trade routes -Saint-Béat (Gallia), O Incio and Espejón (Tarraconensis)- played an important role on the autorepresentation of Roman provincial elites as well as the Early Medieval kingdoms. Therefore, local stone spolia, not only fine art manufactures but also architectural building components, could be understood as an icon or status-symbol, in any case as illustrative picture of public assessment. This is a very promising field of research that is currently been approached by several Spanish interdisciplinary teams, whose results will be presented by the speakers in a wider context of the Western Provinces. Thus, this panel aims to be a meeting point for a wide range of cases studies from current research projects, covering archaeological, epigraphic, art historian and historical perspectives to discuss and advance on our understanding of cultural, social and ideological implications of the use and reuse of marble artefacts.

Panel 6.3 (offen)

Textiles and Fashion in Antiquity


Organisatoren:

Mary Harlow (University of Leicester)

Vortragende:

wird noch bekannt gegeben

Diskutant:

wird noch bekannt gegeben

This panel will bring together a range of scholars and material which stress the points that in the ancient world, textiles and dress form key factors of cultural identity, and that textile production was one of the major consumers of raw materials and labour time. The various papers discuss the functionality of textiles whether as dress or soft furnishings or highly utilitarian items such as sails, and the various messages embedded in or projected by them.

Textile and dress studies engage with a wide range of primary material and a broad scope of methodologies. They tend to be about much more than the immediate subject, dealing with aspects of identity, of economics, of cultural interactions and indeed, of understanding of the cosmos. The papers offered here elucidate ways in which the study of textiles and dress can enhance both our understanding and engagement with the ancient world.

Panel 6.4 (offen)

Making Value and the Value of Making: Theory and Practice in Craft Production


Organisatoren:

Helle Hochscheid
(University College Roosevelt/Utrecht University)
Ben Russel (Edinburgh University)

Vortragende:

wird noch bekannt gegeben

Diskutant:

wird noch bekannt gegeben

This panel investigates the relation between production processes and value attribution in ancient crafts. In the process of making things, it is the craftsperson who shapes functionality and value of artefacts. She/he is, however, never a lone force but depends on networks of suppliers, fellow craftspeople, consumers, wider audiences, the material conditions for the application of craft, and more ephemeral considerations like aesthetics or religious value. Ancient economic history, especially from an archaeological perspective, tends to focus, with good reason, on the objects produced by craftspeople, on form and style, and on distribution. Typological approaches, necessary for sorting and analyzing large bodies of material evidence, have also prioritized the form of finished artefacts and, when they have been applied to part-worked objects, have tended to concentrate on identifying discrete stages in production processes. The maker, as an individual, responding to their own needs as well as those of their customers, is often absent from this picture. In recent sociological and anthropological studies, the role of makers as individuals trained in a particular way, responding to their materials, and operating in a wider network of production, has been more obviously stressed. Key recent works include Tim Ingold's Making: Anthropology, Archaeology, Art and Architecture (2013), Richard Sennett's The Craftsman (2008), David Miller's edited volume Materiality (2005) and even more specialized studies written by practicing craftspeople, like Peter Korn's Why We Make Things & Why It Matters (2013). This panel will bring together scholars interested in making and the role of the maker to discuss what new anthropological and sociological approaches might add to our understanding of ancient craft production and valuation. Among the topics explored in the panel are: - Interaction between craftspeople and the users of their products - Economic value in relation to other types of value attribution - The role of different participants in the chaine opératoire, and indeed the validity of this term - Training of craftspeople and its impact on production - The concept of materiality and its meaning to how craft products are used and valued The aim is to cover multiple periods and media, with papers on Aegean, Greek and Roman material, sculpture, mosaics and other forms of craft production.

Panel 6.5 (offen)

Material Records, Consumption and Local Habits in a Proto-global Antiquity


Organisatoren:

Erich Kistler (Universität Innsbruck)

Vortragende:

wird noch bekannt gegeben

Diskutant:

wird noch bekannt gegeben

Material culture shapes the lives of people, mediates between them and their environment, habitualises behavioural and perceptual patterns – it thus gives substance to cognitive processes. It follows that objects are not passive, timeless containers of specific cultures or of times gone by, but alongside their everyday practical functions things are also conveyors of values and identity whose significances generally also change when the user´s environment is altered. Consumption behaviour in relation to such objects, in ordinary as well as extra-ordinary events, therefore points to significant forms of materialisation in the cultural horizons of human coexistence. It is precisely this that should be revealed in the Antique strata of the Mediterranean area, for the latter to make it possible to draw conclusions about the regimes of behaviour applying at a given time and place that prefigure consumption habits; in this way they afford insights into the situational discourses of values and power in the antique Mediterranean as a proto-global entangled world. Thus, assemblages of archaeological findings can be analysed as materialised interfaces of consumption behaviour at which the local circumstances of coexistence intersect with ‘global’ influences.

Panel 6.6 (offen)

Assemblages of Transport Amphoras: from chronology to economics and society


Organisatoren:

Mark Lawall (University of Manitoba)

Vortragende:

wird noch bekannt gegeben

Diskutant:

wird noch bekannt gegeben

There is a long and important history of research centering on ceramic chronologies that gives a starring role to closed deposits. Carl Schuchhardt's 1895 publication of a mid 2nd century BC deposit on the citadel of Pergamon provided a fixed point for Rhodian amphora stamps. His interests were not limited to chronology; he also considered the intensity of Rhodian-Pergamene commerce and the reasons for stamping amphoras in the first place. Such interpretive steps, however, tend to be overshadowed by matters of chronology and typology. This session follows a current trend in Classical Archaeology towards greater interest in contexts, both for chronology and for socio-economic interpretations. Sculpture is studied not only for its style and iconography but also as objects in collections. Fine- and plain-ware pottery can reveal changing habits of dining and food preparation. Such contextual studies when brought to bear on transport amphoras can inform our understanding of trade and exchange, the economics of cult, household economies, and the intersections between these three sectors. Our understanding of commercial assemblages from shipwrecks or agora spaces might seem sufficiently fulfilled by defining contributors to a cargo or sources of imports. And yet, the markings on the jars, states of preservation, the chronological span and geographical diversity of the various types present, all help to characterize market practices. Comparisons of deposits on an inter- and intraregional basis can help define commercial practices across the Greco-Roman world. Sanctuaries also provide amphora deposits. At times, jars are explicitly marked as cult property, but often they seem more anonymous and generally related to feasting. Such remains can shed light on selectivity of consumption for specific social settings. Different cults, too, show differing intensities of amphora use. Household assemblages shed light on individual consumer behaviour. In rare instances of short occupation or sudden abandonment, the debris in and around a dwelling might be attributed to a narrow period of decision making about use of amphoras. More often, the debris might be linked only to a broader 'neighbourhood' over some decades. Amphora debris in or near households provides evidence for various economic matters including storage needs, diversity of types in comparison with commercial sites, and the domestic use of amphora marking.

Panel 6.7 (offen)

Classical Food and Diet under the Microscope


Organisatoren:

Evi Margaritis and Efthymia Nikita
(The Cyprus Institute, Science and Technology for Archaeology Research Center)
Anita Radini (University of York)

Vortragende:

wird noch bekannt gegeben

Diskutant:

wird noch bekannt gegeben

Diet, with its multiple social and economic determinants, constitutes a key research arena in archaeological studies. Dietary patterns in the Classical world have been extensively explored as a window on ancient cuisine, agricultural and animal management practices, and social structure, among others. The primary means adopted in such studies have been written sources, artistic evidence, material culture and, to a lesser extent, bioarchaeological data (archaeobotanical, zooarchaeological and human skeletal evidence). Recent advances in microanalytical techniques have demonstrated the high potential of microscopic and biomolecular evidence in elucidating dietary aspects which remain elusive on a macroscopic scale. It is the purpose of this session to elucidate the chaîne opérartoire from food production to consumption using different lines of evidence. In this direction, we are interested in papers that aim at reconstructing agricultural practices, dietary choices, food processing and food consumption in different geographical areas of the Classical world, by means of archaeobotanical remains, phytoliths, and starches, dental calculus microdebris of dietary origin, dental microwear analysis, residue analysis from pottery and other material cultural remains, or any other microscopic dietary evidence. Equal emphasis will be placed on contributions with a primary methodological direction, presenting novel approaches in microscopic dietary reconstruction, and to contributions with a stronger biocultural character, which emphasize the integration of the resulting data in their broader economic and societal context. Papers focusing on interdisciplinary approaches to diet and the ancient economy, emphasizing the added value of an interdisciplinary approach, will be very welcome. We are also open to experimental approaches aimed at implementing our understanding of the archaeological record related to diet.

Sektion 7

Ökonomie des Kultes: Investitionen, religiöser und ritueller Konsum, Ökonomie des Todes

Panel 7.1 (offen)

Religious Investment and Ritual Consumption in Peloponnesian Sanctuaries


Organisatoren:

Stefan Feuser (Universität Kiel)

Vortragende:

wird noch bekannt gegeben

Diskutant:

wird noch bekannt gegeben

The sacred landscape of the Peloponnese is formed by a distinct mixture of Pan-Hellenic sanctuaries, urban sanctuaries and smaller extra-urban and rural cultic places. Since Archaic times these sanctuaries must have formed an important part of the Peloponnesian economy, however, their economic significance was largely overlooked in modern scholarships so far. Thus, the panel aims at bringing together leading experts on Peloponnesian sanctuaries to take a fresh look on their economic role from Archaic to Hellenistic times by looking at (1) religious investments as well as (2) ritual consumption. (1)The investment in the religious infrastructure was manifold with the construction, extension and embellishment of temples, altars and sacred precincts. Furthermore, buildings closely related to the cultic activities such as treasuries, banquet buildings, theaters and infrastructure facilities like water supply were also erected. Key questions concerning these buildings could be: What was the driving force behind the investment in religious architecture and cultic infrastructure (e.g. competition among sanctuaries/cities/rulers, changes in cult practices, destruction through war/earthquake/fire/decay)? What might have been the economic rules and logics behind these investments? (2) The ritual consumption was one of the most important parts of ancient cults: it comprised the offering of votives (statues, statuettes, reliefs, vessels, etc. all of different material) and of sacrifices (animals, vine, food, flowers, etc.) as well as the performance of processions (clothing, ephemeral constructions, etc.). Possible questions might be: Concerning their material/ideational value and quantity, what different kind of commodities were offered? Is it possible to estimate the importance for and impact on the urban, local and regional economy of the ritual consumption? Were there production sites of these commodities adjacent to the sanctuaries, in the surroundings or were they imported? And: What did it mean for the ancient economy that an offering or a sacrifice was detracted from the economic circle by consigning it to a goddess or a god?

Panel 7.2 (offen)

The economy of death: New research on collective burial spaces in Rome from the Late Republican to Late Roman period


Organisatoren:

Thomas Fröhlich und Norbert Zimmermann
(Deutsches Archäologisches Institut, Rom)

Vortragende:

wird noch bekannt gegeben

Diskutant:

wird noch bekannt gegeben

The panel aims to discuss economic aspects of Roman funerary architecture designed for extensive numbers of burials - such as columbaria, large hypogea, and catacombs - as well as questions about theirs owners and users. We would like to discuss to what extent economics played a leading role in the invention, the development and the use of large communal burial monuments in Rome; and additionally, how these buildings fulfilledthe religious and social needs of their recipients. Some spaces were originally prepared for family groups or various kinds of associations, which in following generations could be still occupied by the same group or could change hands; often traces of related funeral art and inscriptions are preserved. New studies in Roman funerary monuments have documented interesting evidence for the dynamic process of preparation and use of burial space. Particularly in larger constructions for many more burials than a single family, the aspect of economy in ownership and use is a promising avenue for research. Who planned the project? How and why was a certain place chosen and a specific architectural concept applied? How and where in the original project did the owner and their families situate their own burials, and where and in which manner of distribution or acquisition were further tombs sold or given to others? How were various spaces or decorative schemes differentiated, and how consistent was the anticipated use with the actual use? Can we find explanations for the changes? Was there a standardization of workmanship in building techniques and decoration to respond to economic necessities? Why did certain spaces remain out of use? How was a burial space used by the following generations? Do we have evidence of burials grouped into new collectives, or of smaller groups and factions of formerly unified groupings? How is this attested by architecture and artistic evidence, and how do these relate to the epigraphic sources? These questions are especially pressing because over the last decades a series of general studies on Roman burials and burial customs have emerged, but necessarily based on older documentation. Fresh and more detailed analysis of single monuments provide new and different insights and interpretations. We propose reexaming Roman funerary customs, art, architecture and epigraphy through an economic lens.

Panel 7.3 (offen)

Boundaries Archaeology: Economy, Sacred Places, Cultural Influences in the Ionian Adriatic Areas


Organisatoren:

Enrico Giorgi und Giuseppe Lepore
(Bologna University)

Vortragende:

wird noch bekannt gegeben

Diskutant:

wird noch bekannt gegeben

The aim of this panel is the analysis of the institutional, economical and cultural development in the Ionian and Adriatic borderlands. This process derives from the contacts between middle Adriatic regions and Northern Epirus on one hand and the culturally hegemonic centres on the other.

This meeting generated mutual influences and cultural osmosis in various ways and times, linked to different historical and geographical contexts, but often with similar results.

Recent archaeological researches allow us to assume that sacred places are privileged contexts to analyze these phenomena: in fact, they are gathering places and cultural mediation centres involved in economical and political interests. Sanctuaries are also strictly connected to urban genesis, to territories occupation dynamics and to relations between town and country.

The papers move from specific study cases and archaeological researches still in progress but aim to offer a general overview. These researches are possible thanks to the collaboration between Bologna University, Department of History and Cultures (DiSCi) and several Institutions such as British School at Rome, Università Orientale at Naples, Soprintendenza Archeologia Belle Arti Paesaggio of the Marche region, Tirana Archaeological Institute and Ecole des Hautes Etudies en Sciences Sociales (Paris)​.

Panel 7.4 (offen)

Financial resources and management in the sanctuaries in Greece (FiReMa)


Organisatoren:

Annalisa Lo Monaco (Sapienza Università di Roma)

Vortragende:

wird noch bekannt gegeben

Diskutant:

wird noch bekannt gegeben

Ancient sources attest for Greece a careful distinction between sacred and public finances. Even if there were certainly separate funds, the reality was far more complicated. The boundary line between sacred finances and city resources was not always easy to recognize. Indeed, spending was huge: sanctuaries needed large economic resources to finance the erection or restoration of buildings, daily or monthly liturgical expenses (victims to be sacrificed, firewood, cleaning of buildings and statues, decorations), and the organization of agonistic festivals. The liquidity inflows mainly derived from taxes and the collection of fines and bequests, as well as from sacred lands, which could be rented, cultivated, or given to pasture. A great resource was also the accumulation of votive offerings in precious material, kept in temples or in special locked buildings. It was a real reserve hoarding, which was withdrawable also for non-religious purposes (normally to refinance wars). Inside the shrines also real banking transactions took place, such as safekeeping of restricted deposits, collective or even individual loans with subsidized rate, minting of coins, currency exchange. Finally, the extraordinary inflow of pilgrims involved the creation of real market areas within the sanctuaries. The administrative management was very varied and complex: it could be operated directly by the priests, by the advisory bodies of the respective poleis, by specific sacred assemblies or even by private citizens.

Conducted by a multi-disciplinary team and combining all kinds of sources (literary, archaeological, epigraphic and numismatic), FiReMa is conceived as a double-panel: the first is dedicated to the financial capacities in the sanctuaries of Greece; the second is focused on financial and administrative management pursued in the holy places by several agents. Both the sections span from the 5th c. BC to the Imperial period.

Panel 7.5 (offen)

Financing temple buildings in Archaic and Classical Greece


Organisatoren:

András Patay-Horváth (ELTE University of Budapest)

Vortragende:

wird noch bekannt gegeben

Diskutant:

wird noch bekannt gegeben

Greek temples were neither indispensable nor really necessary for the cult of the gods. Although they are clear manifestations of Greek architecture and religion (essentially most of them can be regarded as monumental votive offerings or gifts to the gods), their construction was not primarily a religious phenomenon, nor simply a series of simple technical procedures. Temple constructions were communal projects par excellence and given the large scale of material and human resources involved and also the considerable time needed to complete them, they depended on various political and socio-economic factors. Their analysis cannot therefore be reduced to the architectural and cultic perspective, but has to include the consideration of historical and economic aspects as well. However, it was usually not investigated in detail, which community commissioned or built a certain temple, why the decision was made to construct one and how it was financed, unless ancient sources provided some explicit information for these questions. But even in these cases, it was only sporadically recognized that the available written sources are often demonstrably misleading or inaccurate. On the other hand, there are epigraphic records containing valuable details on the costs of construction and on the financial resources used; in certain cases the numismatic material may also provide some information. Papers are expected to deal with the above questions and/or to analyse the relevant literary and epigraphic sources in the light of old or recent archaeological finds. Case studies discussing one monument or the temples of a given sanctuary/city/region or period are equally welcome.

Panel 7.6 (geschlossen)

The Economy of Palmyrene Burial and Death


Organisatoren:

Rubina Raja (Aarhus University)

Vortragende:

wird noch bekannt gegeben

Diskutant:

wird noch bekannt gegeben

The aim of this session is to discuss the economy of death and burial in Palmyra and show the wide range of representations and production economy processes in Palmyrene funerary contexts. Funerary towers, hypogea and temple tombs were significant markers in the landscape and large necropolis stretched around the ancient city. An impressive high amount of portraits has been produced between AD 50 and AD 273, when Palmyra was sacked by the troops of the Roman emperor Aurelian. Many examinations of the identity of Palmyra's inhabitants, the history and archaeology of the city have been undertaken. Different influences from Greek and Roman cultural spheres can be detected. Simultaneously, influences from the Parthian realm are very profound in the Palmyrene visual culture. Such influences from a broad range of cultures came together in the local portrait tradition of Palmyra. The portraits show a wide range of variety in style. Whereas investigations on individualization and the importance of representing status and family relations have been pursued, the theme of economy in the funerary sphere has been under researched. Therefore, the topic of this session will focus on the organization of economy of death and the processes involved in this economy. This might enable us to understand the means of representation and answer questions about large-scale production and individualization: Did the carvers create an image that suited the wishes of the costumer or was the costumer restricted to buy a portrait off-the-shelf with little influence on facial features and the chosen attributes? We do know that the local limestone was used in the production of portraits, but where did the knowledge of carving came from? By examining the portraits and asking questions about identity and individuality, we are able to obtain more knowledge on the requirements and the functioning of the Palmyrene market. This will lead us to a better understanding of the economy of the death and the cult around death in Roman period Palmyra. The speakers are connected to the Palmyra Portrait Project, which is funded by The Carlsberg Foundation. The project has compiled the most complete corpus of Palmyrene funerary sculpture in a specially designed database. The database now consists of more than 3000 portraits. The Palmyrene material is the largest corpus of portrait sculpture of the Roman world outside of Rome itself.

Panel 7.7 (offen)

Can the city afford that god?


Organisatoren:

Anna-Katharina Rieger (University of Erfurt)
Johanna Stöger (Leiden University)

Vortragende:

wird noch bekannt gegeben

Diskutant:

wird noch bekannt gegeben

The session seeks to explore the Roman city through the economic dynamics created by the mutual constitution of urban and religious space. Religion has always had a strong physical presence in the ancient city through objects, images, sounds, smells, dress, and above all through buildings and spaces designated to cultic practice and the gathering of people. The Roman city was characterised by the plurality of religious groups and practices, all negotiating, squatting, appropriating and repurposing urban space. One could even claim that the processes of diversification, along the entire spectrum of applied religion (for the civitas, for the emperor, or by individuals), gradually transformed the Roman city into a microcosm of socio-religious interaction with marked economic implications. This transformation might have reworked existing notions of solidarity and connectivity within a city, as well as modifying socio-economic structures for competition and organisation. Moreover, the religious landscape constantly was in dialogue with the physical urban infrastructure. In turn, this plurality of voices was influenced by social and above all economic forces. Of particular interest are points of intersection between the urban infrastructure, the city's economic life, and religious and/or cultic establishments (e.g. sanctuaries, temple areas, shrines, and temporarily dedicated spaces). These include processions, briefly appropriating public space and the wider urban territory, as well as burial places and funerary practices as hubs for integrating the economic functions of the suburbium. We also seek to shed light on the interactions between residents, religious bodies and civic governance, either conflicting or reconciling in their negotiations. Cities, as places of interactions on various levels, allow for the merging of religious, social and economic practices. In this wider context various topics can be discussed: How do sanctuaries and temples function in the competitive environment of a city? How can religious groups negotiate the urban spaces? How do scholae of collegia reflect economic interests within the urban web? When are civic spaces the stages for religious activities, and who invested in them? How can religious and economic infrastructure be related to or manifested in urban space? How do cities affect religious changes or vice versa; how are these changes related to the economic ups and downs of cities?

Panel 7.8 (offen)

Consumption of Local and Imported Goods in Palaestina in Roman and Byzantine Times


Organisatoren:

Jon Seligmanand Itamar Taxel
(Israel Antiquities Authority)

Vortragende:

wird noch bekannt gegeben

Diskutant:

wird noch bekannt gegeben

The proposed panel, designated for the session on Consumption, focuses on the province of Palaestina in Roman and Byzantine times (first to seventh centuries CE). It presents several case studies, which reflect the consumption of locally-produced and/or imported goods by a variety of populations living in rural, urban or other settings. Three of the panel's papers will demonstrate the consumption and production of foodstuffs and agricultural goods by local and foreign communities in a specific region or site during times of relative peace (Seligman; Ashkenazi and Aviam) or political turbulence (Stiebel). The three other papers will discuss the consumption and use – including reuse and recycling – of various architectural media, be they building materials or stone objects, decorative elements or liturgical furnishing. The latter cases will be examined within the context of a specific period or consecutive periods in a given site (Gendelman and Gersht) or region (Habas),or from a cross-regional perspective (Taxel). Altogether, the suggested panel provides an opportunity to publicly discuss various aspects of consumption, some are unique to Roman-Byzantine Palaestina while others are familiar from other regions but have not yet been systematically studied locally.

Sektion 8

Die Rolle der Stadt in der antiken Wirtschaft: städtische Infrastruktur, Stadt-Umlandbeziehung

Panel 8.1 (geschlossen)

The storage in urban economy: Rome and its ports


Organisatoren:

Evelyne Bukowiecki (École française de Rome)
Milena Mimmo (Aix Marseille Université)

Vortragende:

wird noch bekannt gegeben

Diskutant:

wird noch bekannt gegeben

In recent years, many studies have been devoted to the warehouses of the ancient world, but only recently have the close links between storage facilities and urban economy begun to be reconstructed. In each city, the warehouses have played a central role in urban supply dynamics, capable of receiving and storing goods for relatively long periods. Control of the widespread distribution of goods, both incoming and outgoing, was based on a complex network of storage infrastructure. The city of Rome is of course the most emblematic case of this challenge of supplying the urban economy. With more than 1.000.000 inhabitants, the Urbs had to ensure the supply in adequate quantities and the proper preservation of all those goods necessary for the functioning of a metropolis: from essential foodstuffs such as the frumentum, oil, legumes, wine and salt; the most precious and delicate goods such as textiles, papyrus and spices; but also other basic raw materials such as fodder for animals, firewood and building materials. The goods came long distances, along the Mediterranean trade route, but also from more local areas, along the Tiber River, its tributaries, and also via the road network. Some of the merchandise actually represented provincial taxes being paid in kind. Several sources report that all these goods, and many others, were contained in the warehouses of Rome after having transited in the warehouses of its ports, in particular Ostia and Portus. They arrived in the city under the control of the State or by free market, in order to satisfy the needs of the population on the one hand and to meet the market needs on the other. The extent and the strategic distribution of storage areas, the high architectural specialization and the monumental size of the warehouses, the planning of the port system between sea and river, as well as the amount and variety of the goods moved, the cooperation between State and private and the economic interests brought into play, makes of Rome a unique case study in the history of urban supply. In the light of new research and the latest reflections on Roman warehouses, we can trace the entire chain of supply of goods toward the Urbs, but also better appreciate the efficiency and articulation of the infrastructures needed to do it.

Panel 8.2 (offen)

Agrigento: Archaeology of an ancient city. Urban form, sacred and civil spaces, productions, territory.


Organisatoren:

Luigi Caliò und Giuseppe Lepore
(Università di Bologna)

Vortragende:

wird noch bekannt gegeben

Diskutant:

wird noch bekannt gegeben

Every ancient town with its own buildings, its executive and production structures constitutes a model for common living, being an administrative and operational point of reference for a wide portion of the territory.

The most recent researches carried out and coordinated by the Parco in the site of Agrigento, in cooperation with a number of Universities, are defining a more concrete profile for Akragas/Agrigentum, as a unitary and integrated system eligible, on a large scale, for community needs management: from public spaces to private ones, from facilities to cult places, from necropoleis to production sites, from the exploitation of the chora to the handing of the port areas - all the most important political and economic functions correspond to the urban system. Particularly, the plan of the city is newly interpreted, along with the profile of sacred and civic areas, the inhabited and the production places and ways, from archaic period to Late Antiquity; economical organization is shed a new light, as it is investigated according to archaeological evidence, no more only through literary sources or the magnificent architecture of the Valley temples.

Panel 8.3 (offen)

Shops, Workshops and Urban Economic History in the Roman World


Organisatoren:

Miko Flohr (University of Leiden)
Nicolas Monteix (Université de Rouen)

Vortragende:

wird noch bekannt gegeben

Diskutant:

wird noch bekannt gegeben

The material remains of Roman urban shops and workshops long played a marginal role in classical archaeology, but in recent years, they have enjoyed a marked increase of scholarly attention. Influenced by debates about the nature of ancient urban economies, scholars began to study the archaeological evidence for urban retail and manufacturing with an unprecedented vigour from the late 1990s onwards, and increasingly began to experiment with novel ways of interpreting it. Still, opinions diverge as to the actual interpretative power of archaeologically identifiable shops and workshops: their real contribution to our understanding of the history of Roman urban economies is a matter of debate. On the one hand, scholars have increasingly expressed pessimism about the possibilities to use archaeological remains as a starting point for quantifying output in absolute terms, and about the extent to which shops and workshops were oriented towards local or supra-local markets; on the other hand, they have increasingly begun to assess aspects of shop- and workshop design in relation to investment strategies and profitability, and to explore the economic history of urban commercial landscapes. At this point, a critical challenge ahead lies in counter-balancing the fragmentation of discourse: while good evidence comes from all directions, and in a variety of forms, and while the available categories of evidence are being studied in a variety of places, archaeologists have difficulty in connecting the threads, and – more than those studying crafts and retail on the basis of epigraphy and literary texts – suffer to develop a comparative perspective over larger geographical areas. Hence, it is time to put this interpretative integration explicitly on the agenda. This session will bring together scholars who have studied this evidence from a variety of angles and in a variety of places in the Roman Mediterranean. It will discuss the ways in which recent developments in the study of urban shops and workshops have (and have not) challenged our conceptualization of urban economic history in the Roman world, and it will explore possible avenues to further deepen our understanding of the changing nature of Roman urban commerce, and to bridge spatial and chronological distances between local sets of evidence.

Panel 8.4 (geschlossen)

The economics of urbanism in the Roman East


Organisatoren:

Rinse Willet (Leiden University)

Vortragende:

wird noch bekannt gegeben

Diskutant:

wird noch bekannt gegeben

The urban geography of the Roman Empire has a long historiography, with scholars like A.H.M. Jones already making an excellent monograph of the cities of the Eastern Roman Empire in the 1930's. Yet these studies focused primarily on the history of cities and they saw the ancient town as an isolated historical phenomenon or at best as an index of the spread of Hellenism or Romanitas. Unlike these studies, "An Empire of 2000 cities" adopts a different approach to the study of Roman urbanism. The current project is an attempt to take a step further and place the town in its socio-economic context, collecting the most up-to-date archaeological evidence and using statistics to appraoch the urban phenomenon in the Roman East. The data used, however, is often disparate and complex and many uncertainties surround the theme of urbanism. To achieve a more balanced treatment in the various regions that constitute the Roman East, we will base our discussion on the most basic parameters of urbanism: the number of towns per province, their spatial distribution and size under the High Empire. The panel will consist of four presentations that will focus on particular regions or provinces of the Roman East. The first issue to be analysed is our solution to the fundamental difficulty of deciding what a town is in the first place, in order to arrive at a simple definition that will encompass all the different regions in the study. Subsequently we shall show that much can be inferred from the variations in the number of towns per province or region, their geographic foci and the variations in size. Equally intriguing questions emerge when we attempt to interpret the distribution of the urban settlement in terms of the character of the regional economies and the distribution of wealth. What was the share of the structural factors of landscape, climate and infrastructure and the continuity or discontinuity of pre-Roman urbanism? In order not to get lost in the particularities of the Roman East, the panel intends to lift the results out of regional isolation for cross-regional comparison, allowing for an in-depth discussion of the nature and economy of ancient cities in general. We invite at least one distinguished scholar of Roman urbanism who has studied a different part of the Roman Empire to comment on the pattern of urban settlement and its implications in the socio-economic sphere from a comparative perspective.

Panel 8.5 (geschlossen)

The economics of urbanism in the Roman West


Organisatoren:

Matthew Hobson (Leiden University)

Vortragende:

wird noch bekannt gegeben

Diskutant:

wird noch bekannt gegeben

To what extent were towns integral to the economic functioning of the Roman empire? How did the structures of Roman imperialism affect the processes of urbanisation and municipalisation within the Roman provinces? Can the distribution patterns of large-, medium- and small-sized towns across the western empire help us to identify the major factors determining their food supply and growth? Emphasis in the debate over the role of the town in the ancient economy has recently shifted from Max Weber and Moses Finley's ideal types to the use of urbanisation rates as proxies for economic performance. This panel intends to use a vast set of newly available data collected by researchers as part of the long-running Empire of 2000 Cities Project, hosted by the University of Leiden, to explore these questions at a broader scale of analysis than ever before. Geographically it will encompass the majority of the Latin west; the Greek-speaking regions, whose urban sites developed within the polis system, are intended to be the focus of a sister panel, which we hope will also be hosted by the 2018 ICCA . Thanks to the flexible web- and GIS-linked database produced by the Leiden Cities project, which it is hoped will eventually be free to access online, patterns in the size, monumentality and status of urban sites across a vast geographical area can now be observed. A number of regional specialists from within the project will be invited to respond to a discussion paper, outlining these broader patterns, to be circulated 6 months in advance of the conference (i.e. by October 2017). Individual speakers will be asked to comment upon how their provinces fit into or differ from the broader regional developments of the western empire and upon the significance of this for the overall functioning of the Roman economic system.

Panel 8.6 (offen)

Judaea/Palaestina and Arabia: Cities and Hinterland in Roman and Byzantine Times


Organisatoren:

Achim Lichtenberger (Universität Münster)
Oren Tal (Tel Aviv University)
Zeev Weiss (Hebrew University of Jerusalem)

Vortragende:

wird noch bekannt gegeben

Diskutant:

wird noch bekannt gegeben

The proposed session dedicated to urban infrastructure aims to explore the relationships between the city and its periphery. It will focus on some southern Levantine major and secondary administrative centers of Judaea/Palaestina and Arabia under Roman and Byzantine rule (1st to the 7th century CE). Papers read in the session will present several test-cases in which the information on the periphery of a center is well-documented via excavations, surveys and other means of documentations (i.e. LIDAR, aerial photography and so forth), while others will address a wide range of issues connected with the Graeco-Roman city and its hinterland, among which networking and communication, city lands, citizenship and the definition of a city, etc. Road networks, dependent villages and estates, aqueducts and dams, rivers, streams and seafronts, necropoleis, industrial quarters and facilities, agricultural terrains and towers, dumps and fortifications will be considered as some of the means for defining the urban infrastructure not only in an economical perspective but also in a political and social perception. Given the scarcity of studies addressing this issue in a southern Levantine milieu, we intend to produce a collective study on the subject steaming from the papers and discussions of our intended session.

Panel 8.7 (offen)

From splendidissima ciuitas to oppidum labens: Financial problems and material ruin in Roman provincial cities at the end of the High-Empire


Organisatoren:

Javier Andreu Pintado (Universidad de Navarra)

Vortragende:

wird noch bekannt gegeben

Diskutant:

wird noch bekannt gegeben

Between the Late Republic and the Flavian era Rome created an Empire of cities. Using that model Rome entrusted the local elite with the responsibility of managing their communities in an unprecedented approach. The result was the articulation of the Latin West as a network of cities as "parua simulacra" of Rome. The engagement of the local elites, their munificence, together with the financial autonomy of each center produced some of the most important changes in this model of urban life. So, in order to study the city as an economic centre it is necessary to take into account the epigraphic and archaeological evidence, to describe the city in its financial and institutional contexts and to explore whether or not the Roman Empire was successful and the idea of city durable. On the basis of some decrees from the Flavian era, the comments of Pliny the Younger on the financial problems of many cities and, finally, different notices in the Historia Augusta reporting the existence of oppida labentia –"cities in decline"– at the end of the 2nd century AD, we seek to discuss the following question: was the municipal system, at least in the Latin West, a useful and sustainable model of managing local autonomy? Was it a durable system? Were new cities more fragile than others in terms of financial sustainability? What were the causes for the lack of strength of many urban centres from the 2nd century AD onwards? Scholars working in different provinces of the Roman Empire have attested diverse signs of financial difficulties in many privileged urban centres from at least the reign of Marcus Aurelius. This evidence shows abandonment of public buildings –forums and water supply systems–, lack of private munificence initiatives promoting buildings, depreciation of sculptural programs –recycled or reused–, decline in the epigraphic habit and depopulation of complete clusters of cities. Such processes transformed in many ways the layout of the classical model of city and show us that, most likely, many of those formerly thriving communities expanded beyond their capacity and could not cope already at the end of the Antonine period with the troubles preceding the 3rd century crisis. The main goal of this panel is to discuss what were the conditions in which Roman cities began to loss their former economic power, reversing from the ideal of the "splendidissima" ciuitas to that of the "oppidum labens".

Panel 8.8 (offen)

The numidian country and its commercial and economic opening on the Mediterranean basin and its southern prolongation


Organisatoren:

Khaoula Bennour (University of Tunis)

Vortragende:

wird noch bekannt gegeben

Diskutant:

wird noch bekannt gegeben

Our study focuses on the commercial networks linking the Numidia country to the Mediterranean world and to the nomadic, semi-nomadic and sedentary tribes of the Saharan and sub-Saharan regions. Numidia has inherited a network covering the whole of the Mediterranean basin, connecting the port areas to the interior of the Numidian lands and even to the sub-Saharan regions. Indeed, the evolution of urban structures in Numidia was accompanied by a significant economic boom that seems to be increasing in the 2nd century BC. Especially with the decline of Carthage. It is the Numidian monarchy that benefits greatly, it develops the networks of trade with the regions of the Mediterranean basin which was in the Punic movement, especially after the control of the main commercial ports of the regions of the Syrtes and the Sahel. Thus, Numidian kingdoms were inserted into the commercial networks of the Phoenician-Punic world, Greek and Roman. These networks can be direct or via Carthage. Numerous questions relate to the nature of agricultural or artisanal production and to the modalities of trade and the organization of markets in urban and rural areas in a Numidia country. However, the interest of the Numidian power in international trade does not undermine the importance of interregional trade and pre-Saharan or Saharan caravan trade. Trade networks have played an important role in forging links and socio-economic exchanges linking the Mediterranean to sub-Saharan areas. The "tariff of Zarai", although it goes back to Roman times, informs us about the presence of several circuits of exchange of pastoral, nomadic and semi-nomadic products of the numido-Mauritanian region. Given the geographical position that contributed to the isolation of the North African world with its southern natural prolongation, this did not prevent the Libyco-Numidian, Carthaginian, Greek and especially Roman populations from building bridges and contacts with the various tribes Nomadic, semi-nomadic and sedentary peoples of the Saharan and sub-Saharan regions, such as the Muslims, the Garamantes, the Gules and the Ethiopians, who certainly contributed in one way or another to the shaping of Libyco-numidian culture.

Panel 8.9 (geschlossen)

Town-country relations in the northern parts of Germania inferior from an economic perspective


Organisatoren:

Marion Brüggler und Julia Obladen-Kauder
(LVR-Amt für Bodendenkmalpflege im Rheinland)
Harry Van Enckevort
(Gemeente Nijmegen, Bureau Archeologie en Monumenten)

Vortragende:

wird noch bekannt gegeben

Diskutant:

wird noch bekannt gegeben

Germania inferior is in some aspects an interesting candidate for investigating town-country relationships. While its southern part borders on the distribution area of celtic oppida, its northern parts had no Iron Age tradition of larger settlement agglomerations. Nonetheless, in the Roman period towns – even one Colonia – were founded here: The Colonia Ulpia Traiana (Xanten) and the municipia of Ulpia Noviomagus (Nijmegen) and Forum Hadriani/Municipium Aelium Cananefatium (Voorburg). Another important economic agent is the Roman military with its numerous forts along the Lower German Limes. This massive and new agglomeration of people that were not primarily involved in food production must have posed a challenge to the supply of provisions. This panel focuses on the northern parts of Germania inferior and aims to discuss the economic interaction between the named towns as well as the other larger settlement agglomerations (military forts and vici) with their respective hinterland. What supply strategies for the towns can be made out? Are there differences between the civitates? Do they differ from those in the southern parts of Germania inferior and other northwestern provinces? And if so, in what way and what are the reasons for it? Also, methodological questions need to be addressed: Can we, with our data at hand, answer these questions? Else, what other methods can be applied to gain a deeper insight into this aspect of Roman economy? The Speakers of this session are set.

Panel 8.10 (offen)

The aesthetics of urban production and trade


Organisatoren:

Annett Haug (Universität Kiel)
Johannes Lipps (Universität Tübingen)

Vortragende:

wird noch bekannt gegeben

Diskutant:

wird noch bekannt gegeben

The relevance of economy in ancient society found its visual expression in the effort that was put into the layout and design of 'economic spaces.': spaces of production and trade. They were not conceived purely with functionality in mind, and were often enhanced with elaborate programmes of decoration and precious materials. Within urban landscapes, these buildings were sometimes even positioned to take advantage of different visual perspectives, such as a view from the sea or a river. At the same time, economic spaces could also engage the other senses: most were characterised by specific sounds and odours that contributed to the general aesthetic 'design.' Above all, however, it was the people acting in those places who created particular commercial atmospheres. Thus, design and agency were intrinsically related. On the one hand, the needs, behaviour and expectations of commercial agents shaped economic spaces. On the other hand, the (architectural) design and décor of the spaces induced specific forms of agency and perception. In recent years, a renewed emphasis on the economy has offered important insight into ancient material culture. But the aesthetics of urban spaces of production and trade has rarely been the subject of research. This panel therefore wants to outline this phenomenon for different chronological horizons with regard to the following questions: - How are economic spaces staged within urban settings? How does their design refer to (or differ from) the surrounding urban landscape? - Which strategies are chosen to aestheticise economic buildings? Are there specific forms of 'economic' design/décor? - What might have been the purpose of decorating these buildings? - In what way do people and architecture affect each other in economic contexts? - How are economic spaces perceived? - Do written or visual sources reflect on the aesthetic qualities of economic buildings? - In which historical (temporal and chronological) situations do economic spaces become aesthetically prominent within urbanscapes? The questions will be addressed for all 'ancient' contexts, from the Minoan period to Late Antiquity. Systematic approaches to the topic are welcome, as are case studies on specific contexts, literary or historical reflexions.

Panel 8.11 (geschlossen)

Cities, Micro-regions and Economy in an Interdisciplinary Perspective. Three Case Studies from Hellenistic-Roman Asia Minor


Organisatoren:

Daniel Knitter (Universität Kiel)
Bernhard Ludwig, Ulrich Mania und Felix Pirson
(Deutsches Archäologisches Institut Istanbul)

Vortragende:

wird noch bekannt gegeben

Diskutant:

wird noch bekannt gegeben

Economic relations between ancient cities and the rural hinterland have for a long time been described in terms of a hierarchic dichotomy of "town" and "country". Against this background, the double-panel applied for seeks to understand the economy of ancient cities as a system of interdependencies in the context of micro-regions. This includes economic relations amongst urban communities and with the rural hinterland. A central role here is played by the ecological dimension, namely the human–environment relationship and its impact on the landscape and urban development. The interplay of specific topographic situations with the individual physiognomies of ancient cities and their economies will be discussed with reference to Ephesos, Pergamon and Sagalassos. These three sites are particularly relevant to the topic under discussion. Ephesos was a seaport throughout antiquity; Pergamon, though situated inland, had access to the sea via its harbours, while Sagalassos significantly lay in the interior in the Taurus mountains. While the mentioned differences offer highly promising conditions for scientific enquiry, comparability in fact extends over several levels: differing in status in Hellenistic times, all three cities experienced a massive expansion in the Roman imperial period, a circumstance that needs to be analysed in the context of their respective micro-regions. At all three sites a wealth of archaeological and geoscience data is available. On the other hand the three sites are anchored in different research traditions, which presents an opportunity to re-evaluate the role of the economy in interdisciplinary archaeological urban research projects.

So that comparative discussion of the selected sites can be conducted as productively as possible, the double-panel is divided into three sections – (1) Resources: needs, supply and infrastructure, (2) Production, distribution and consumption, (3) Economy and urban physiognomies. In each section contributions will be presented on all three cities. The ancient history perspective on the interplay of settlement structure, urban development and the economy in Hellenistic-Roman Asia Minor will be augmented by a paper on the emergence and abandonment of urban settlements.

Frank Vermeulen (Ghent University), an internationally recognised specialist in the archaeology and geo-archaeology of ancient Mediterranean landscapes and Roman rural and urban settlement history, has been invited as a discussant in order to extend the focus beyond Anatolia and to establish a connection with the discussion of these phenomena in the western Mediterranean region.

Panel 8.12 (geschlossen)

Roman Street and Urban Economy


Organisatoren:

Thomas Morard (Université de Liège)

Vortragende:

wird noch bekannt gegeben

Diskutant:

wird noch bekannt gegeben

Among the urban infrastructures which shaped the economy, the street played a major role in ancient cities because it contributed to durably structure the urban economy. This use of the street has often been overlooked by archaeologists – until now. Indeed, such a topic naturally finds its place within the 19th congress of the International Association for Classical Archaeology whose theme is the economy of the classical world. First of all: how do we consider the street? As a mere route whose only purpose is traffic? No. This notion is wrong as it appears by reading ancient authors like Martial and Juvenal. The space of the street was built in three dimensions and was developed to answer the needs of the local population. It was indeed a place for important social and economic trades, constitutive elements of urbanity. The economic function of the street clearly appeared in its architecture which was shaped by the construction of numerous tabernae within the insulae and by the promotion of the activities (advertising) which happened there. Therefore, the roman cities economy was not divided and confined into specific buildings such as macella. On the contrary, it was incorporated into the whole urban fabric through the streets. With this panel, we offer to shed a new light to the role of the street within the urban economies through the imperium romanum between the 2nd century B.C.E. and the 3rd century A.C.E. Is the economic importance of the streets the same across the whole empire? What about the cities where people were settled before Rome's arrival? On the contrary, what about all those which were founded by Rome? Did Rome and the Eastern Roman cities inherit their characteristics from Hellenistic cities? Or was the Roman model born in Italy? The problem is wide, contrary to the sources at our disposal. To solve it, two axis will be examined starting from precise archaeological cases, chosen within different periods: a) the qualitative study of the development of some streets well known thanks to extensive excavations like the Via dell'Abbondanza in Pompei or the Main Street of the Theatre District in Delos. b) the quantitative study of the distribution of economic functions along the network and the interactions between them thanks to comprehensive excavations or geophysical prospections.

Panel 8.13 (offen)

Central places and un-central landscapes: political economies and natural ressources in the longue durée


Organisatoren:

Giorgos Papantoniou (University of Bonn)
Athanasios Vionis (University of Cyprus)

Vortragende:

wird noch bekannt gegeben

Diskutant:

wird noch bekannt gegeben

This Panel aims to rethink and revaluate Central Place Theory in light of contemporary developments in settlement archaeology, methods and archaeological thought by bringing together 'central places' and 'un-central landscapes' and grasping diachronically upon the complex relation between town and country, as shaped by political economies and the availability of natural resources. The Panel covers the period between the Bronze Age and the end of Late Antiquity, and includes all the disciplines and regions that deal with the so-called 'Greco-Roman civilization'. Micro-environments with natural boundaries (e.g. rivers, mountains, woods) and desirable resources (e.g. water, arable land, minerals) sustained nucleated communities and remained occupied for almost every period. On the other hand, 'central persons' may be as important as 'central place' and this is where the concept of political economy evolves. As T. Earle has eloquently argued on several occasions, all economic theories should recognise that, to whatever degree realised, power strategies were built on economic and ideological control over resources. Landscape archaeology is an area of study that overcomes the conventional boundaries between disciplines such as anthropology, history and geography, and provides a fresh perspective and a powerful investigative tool to address research questions related to the conscious and the unconscious shaping of the land and the processes of organising space, involving interaction between the physical environment and human presence. Temporality, spatiality, materiality and site-based analysis are all encompassed in the concept of landscapes, and therefore through its study much can be said about human responses to the changing conditions of life in the longue durée. We welcome papers addressing 'central places' and/or 'un-central landscapes' from a political economy or/and a natural resources perspective. Moving away from model-bounded approaches, Central Place Theory is used more flexibly to include all the places that may have functioned as places of economic or ideological centrality (even in a local context) in the past, including urban centres, agro-towns, countryside settlements, burial and ritual topoi. The diversity of the different disciplinary perspectives and approaches, combined with dialogues, enriches our task of multiple interpretations.

Panel 8.14 (geschlossen)

The Economy of Hellenistic, Roman and Late Antique North Africa: Linking Town and Country


Organisatoren:

Silvia Polla (Freie Universität Berlin)
Mariette De Vos (Università degli Studi di Trento)

Vortragende:

wird noch bekannt gegeben

Diskutant:

wird noch bekannt gegeben

"No area of study of Roman Africa has witnessed such dramatic advance in recent decades as that of the economy" (Mattingly and Hitchner 1995, 198).

More than 20 years ago, in a bibliographic essay on the archaeology of Roman Africa, Mattingly and Hitchner considered the state of the art and set up a research agenda in Romano-African studies. In the meantime, several fieldwork projects in urban as well as in rural context has been carried out and some synthetic re-appraisals of Romano-African Landscapes has been published. Nevertheless, despite of the very abundant archaeological information and literature on Roman Africa, we still lack a clear understanding of how town and country worked together in the different regions and historical periods. Moreover, the present politically sensitive situation makes fieldwork impossible in many areas, especially in the countryside. However, for no other Mediterranean region we dispose of a similar level of knowledge of the Roman and Late Antique ceramic production and intra-provincial distributional patterns like for Africa Proconsularis. This body of evidence has allowed shifting the attention to the African consumers and inland circuits of commodities distribution and consumption. Nevertheless, the economy of the Hellenistic North Africa, considering urban and rural settlements of the Numidic/ Lybian/ Punic periods and of the one of the early colonization phase, are still a poorly understood aspect, raising also questions on cultural and socio-economic diversity. Recently, the transformation processes characterizing the Late and Post-Antique phases have been reconsidered, analyzing urban and rural trends as they emerge from the archaeological evidence. In this panel we would like to stimulate discussion, on the one hand, on the diverse regional economic trajectories in Hellenistic, Roman and Late Antique North Africa especially concerning the relations between town and country, considering production, distribution and consumption of commodities and services; on the other hand we invite scholars who study the economic nature and function of urban and rural spaces to link together these two interwoven spheres.

D. J. Mattingly - R. B. Hitchner, Roman Africa: An Archaeological Review, JRS Vol. 85 (1995), 165 - 213

Panel 8.15 (offen)

Crisis on the margins of the Byzantine Empire: Bio-archaeological approaches to resilience and collapse in the Negev Desert

Organisatoren:

Guy Bar-Oz und Lior Weissbrod
(University of Haifa)

Vortragende:

wird noch bekannt gegeben

Diskutant:

wird noch bekannt gegeben

Research funded by the European Research Council examines new approaches todocumenting collapse in ancient complex societies, looking into the case of Byzantinesettlement in the Negev Desert (4th-7th c. CE) across the Islamic conquest of the southernLevant. Unique contexts such as ancient urban landfills, sealed and abandoned residentialstructures, and relict agricultural fields provide rich data repositories, where information onboth cultural and environmental dynamics—internal and external processes for generatingchange—is superimposed. Early findings drawn from analyses of plant and animal remains,radiocarbon dates, material culture and sediments suggest a much more complicatedsequence of transformation from Byzantine to Islamic society than was previouslyappreciated. Proxies of societal decline and abandonment indicate a long and drawn-outsequence of events, beginning as early as a century before the Islamic conquest, anddemonstrating change at a higher-order level of social organization versus continuity at alower level. An integrated and high-resolution approach to synthesizing these data aims tolink the chain of societal events to a series of potential causal factors, including climatechange, plague, natural disaster, war and conflict, and human resilience to reachcomprehensive understanding of this historical trajectory.

Sektion 9

Die Ökonomie des Militärs in Krieg und Frieden

Panel 9.1 (offen)

The production of military equipment – fabricae, private production and more


Organisatoren:

Stefanie Hoss (Universität zu Köln)

Vortragende:

wird noch bekannt gegeben

Diskutant:

wird noch bekannt gegeben

The production of military equipment is a subject that has advanced much less in the last thirty years since Mike Bishops article in 1985 than one would have thought from the amount of new finds made and new research methods developed during that period. This is especially striking when compared to the advances made in the research on civilian production in the same time. Most research on military production is either concerned with production for the military centring on grain and meat (where large advances have been made) or with production by the military centring on tile production.

The fact that the soldiers owned at least those parts of their equipment that had to confirm to their body measurements (helmet, armour, sword, sword-belt) and the horsemen also owned the horses and their equipment is proven by various written sources. Other implements, such as the tents or the catapults, were owned by larger units, such as the contubernium or the legion. Which influence did these different systems of ownership have on the production of these objects?

Another consideration is the difference in the products: The production of a shield is much different from that of a sword and that again differs from the production an arrow. Could these differences in production have influenced the manner of production?

Because of several forth century literary sources, the famous fabricae are often seen as the only source of military equipment. But the mere word is already a problem: Do we really mean the workshops found in forts and legionary fortresses? The buildings often named as such within the fortress walls have such widely differing sizes and forms that one is left with the impression that any building without another obvious function is named fabrica by the excavators, regardless whether there is any true evidence for metalworking or not.

But perhaps, fabricae means something else entirely, namely the large – large as in industrial - production sites often situated in the hinterland of the garrison like the production site of the legio Prima Minerva at the Bonner Berg or the Sheepen site less than a kilometre from Camulodunum.

The purpose of this session is to collect what we do know and work towards terra incongnita from there. We thus invite papers that present productions sites or production systems for military equipment from all over the Roman Empire.

Panel 9.2 (offen)

Strapped for cash: needy soldiers, reluctant authorities

Organisatoren:

Iossif Panagiotis (Université de Liège)
Evangeline Markou (National Hellenic Research Foundation)

Vortragende:

wird noch bekannt gegeben

Diskutant:

wird noch bekannt gegeben

War has always been an expensive enterprise for cities and rulers as, from as early as the classical period, it has not been cheap to pay for mercenaries. The war could be seen as a "growth" machine generating money which, in a second phase, could be used to fuel the everyday exchanges and, later on, to remunerate military operations. It is a general consensus that soldiers wanted to be paid in "fresh money" but when quantifications are used to estimate the sizes of a given coinage, we come to realize that most of the issues were either limited or insufficient for sustaining an army over a longer period of time.

But armies were paid in various ways; epigraphic and literary sources offer precious hints on how coins and mercenaries were related and that the soldiers were not only paid in precious metal coinages, but also received allowances in bronze coins (opsonion and siteresion) and, of course, in kind (siteresion?). An important part of their expected benefits was booty, although this remains difficult to quantify based on the available evidence.

Despite the general consensus relating the issues of coins with military activities, little (or no) information is known on the practicalities of the payments while various questions arise: how were the resources raised by cities and rulers in order to fund their armies? who decided the salary of the army or was this part of an ad hoc negotiation? and what were the practicalities for the payment of mercenary soldiers? were they paid in large denominations of precious metal and how were those coins exchanged with smaller issues that could be used in local markets ? were they paid before or after the campaign? did they receive an advance before and the rest after the (successful) campaign ? where did they receive these payments and did the usual or "military" mints operate to cover their needs? did they receive a misthos in bronze when affected in garrison activities, as recent studies proposed? and how did the soldiers act when not engaged by an army, often far away from their motherlands? Did the issuing authorities try to keep them calm and satisfied or did they find excuses not to pay what they promised? do we have testimonies of rebellions and mutinies related to such circumstances? And how about local economies? can we trace back the impact of the military payments in local economies? and what effects the presence of an army had in the market?

These are only some of the questions that will be addressed in the proposed panel focusing on the numismatic aspects and the direct connection between coinage and army. The aim is to investigate the prolific use of the coinage for military needs through time, starting from the Classical city, moving to the Hellenistic period, and through the passage of the Roman Empire arriving to the Gallo-roman Emperors of the third century A.D.

Sektion 10

Ökonomie des Wissens: Erziehung, Innovation, Bildung


Sektion 11

Methodologie: Feldforschung, Naturwissenschaften, Quantifizierung

Panel 11.1 (offen)

The Rural Foundations of The Roman Economy. New Approaches to Rome's Ancient Countryside from the Archaic to the Early Imperial period.

Organisatoren:

Peter Attema (University of Groningen)
Gabriele Cifani (Tor Vergata, Rome)
Günther Schörner (University of Vienna)

Vortragende:

wird noch bekannt gegeben

Diskutant:

wird noch bekannt gegeben

Das Panel ist geöffnet für Bewerbungen, die sich mit der archaischen bis mittelrepublikanischen Epoche beschäftigen.

Over the last decades excavations, survey and environmental studies have generated a wealth of data on the countryside around Rome north and south of the Tiber. The data pertain to rural settlement from the small farmstead to the large villa and comprise of non-urban burial grounds, production facilities such as pottery kilns, smithies, mines, infrastructure, field systems or give information on crop choice, manuring, land reclamation and land degradation. In combination this wealth of information, often still unconnected, can inform us on the functioning and performance of the Roman economy in a crucial period of Rome's rise to power during the Archaic and mid- Republican periods and investigate its subsequent development during the Late Republican and Early Imperial period within a globalizing context. The geographical scope of the double session will include Etruria and Lazio and its time frame will cover the period from the Archaic to the Imperial. In the first part we will deal specifically with the Archaic to Mid-Republican periods, in the second part the focus will shift to the Late Republican and Imperial periods. Papers covering the total chronological range will be grouped separately. Rather than descriptive single cases, the session aims at data-driven, quantitative and interpretive studies in order to investigate drivers and performance of the Central Italian rural economy during a period of an upscaling economy. Besides the papers mentioned, other research groups have also expressed an interest

Panel 11.2 (offen)

New views for old cities: settlement, survey, and legacy data towards a holistic economy of the city and countryside

Organisatoren:

Andrew Cabaniss und Troy Samuels
(University of Michigan)

Vortragende:

wird noch bekannt gegeben

Diskutant:

wird noch bekannt gegeben

Narratives of the urban and rural economies often focus on a single scale of analysis, trying to answer questions with either regional or site-specific data rather than a synthesis of the two. The divide in archaeological methods between the techniques of surface survey and those of settlement excavation, exacerbated by the administrative separation between many excavation and survey projects, has contributed to a disjunction between regional and site-specific histories in academic scholarship. The challenge of creating complementary narratives of economic development in the city and countryside is intensified by a temporal divide in the collection of the data: urban and rural datasets are rarely produced in unison. The integration of various legacy data, spanning the past century of field work, is often crucial when producing a holistic picture of ancient economic activity on multiple scales.

Constructing narratives about the modes and intensities of production, distribution, and consumption requires controlled methods of multiscalar comparison in order to successfully interpolate coherent conclusions about social and economic processes. The goal of this session is to bring new perspectives to studies of economic activity that place survey and excavation data in dialogue and suggest avenues for the further integration of multiscalar and legacy data into the study of the economic past.

The papers of this session will deploy novel methodologies that integrate multiple scales of data in analyses grounded in a holistic approach to regions and settlements. Rather than perpetuating the disciplinary divide between rural and urban economies through the continued separation of survey and excavation data, this session will propose new avenues for approaching economic questions that allow for the use of all available data: rural or urban, old or new, survey or excavation.

Panel 11.3 (offen)

City-hinterland relations on the move? The impact of socio-political change on local economies from the perspective of survey archaeology.

Organisatoren:

Tymon De Haas, Dean Peeters und Luigi Pinchetti
(Graduiertenkolleg 1878, Universitäten Köln und Bonn)

Vortragende:

wird noch bekannt gegeben

Diskutant:

Jeroen Poblome (KU Leuven)

The impact of societal transformations (e.g., the development of Greek poleis, Roman territorial expansion or the rise of the Church in late Antiquity) on regional settlement patterns and economies has been a central concern in field survey archaeology from the 1970s. However, with the intensification of field methods and the maturing of both typological and technological ceramic studies, the past decades have witnessed an exponential increase in the quantity and quality of settlement and ceramic data acquired through field surveys. For example, ceramic studies increasingly facilitate a better understanding of how local systems of production and exchange were affected, and a stronger attention on the economic role of non-urban, minor centres has lead recent scholarship away from static town-country models. This data now allows a much greater spatial and chronological detail in the study of the impact that large-scale transformations had on local economies. This panel aims to explore how survey archaeology can refine our understanding of the links between socio-political change and local economic landscapes. We invite case studies that re-examine the coherence, interplay and (dis-)continuity between town and country in times of rapid and seemingly far-reaching socio-economic transformation: in which way did the foundation of colonies subvert traditional systems of production and exchange? How did settlement hierarchies change during late antiquity and how did this affect economic interrelations? We welcome contributions dealing with different periods and different areas within the Mediterranean, and are particularly interested in papers that present methodological innovations that enhance more traditional studies on settlement patterning and ceramic distributions.

Panel 11.4 (offen)

Geochemistry and Economic History: Approaching Ceramic Productions in Ancient Times with Portable Ed-XRF

Organisatoren:

Lars Heinze (University of Cologne)
Markus Helfert (University of Frankfurt)

Vortragende:

wird noch bekannt gegeben

Diskutant:

wird noch bekannt gegeben

As archaeometric services become more affordable and prices for instruments are decreasing, a wide range of techniques and methods (i. e. geophysical prospections, 3D-laser scanner, aerial photography) gets more frequently implemented into new archaeological projects. Moreover, with easy-to-use interfaces and Archaeometry becoming a regular field of study at universities, many of these approaches are now applied by archaeologists themselves on a regular basis, with fewer “experts” accompanying, guiding and controlling these projects.

This panel aims to explore how this trend has impacted geochemical analysis of pottery assemblages over the recent years. This field in particular was revolutionized over the last decade by the introduction of portable X-ray analyzers finally becoming affordable for research institutions and even larger university projects. These devices not only promise full flexibility for chemical measurements ('handheld'), but also instant results without taking and processing samples from the objects under research ('non-destructive'). However, after the initial euphoria, critique arose about how or if at all to use the devices as a new standard for the study of ancient ceramics provenances.

The presentations within this panel therefore will deliver an overview over the various ways projects have successfully implemented portable XRF devices into their pottery studies. Lecturers are encouraged to not only focus on results for the production and distribution of the studied pottery, but also to critically review their methodology and to demonstrate how they have learned to handle and overcome some of the intrinsic downsides of these portable analyzers. Furthermore, lecturers are welcome to attest ways of combining portable XRF measurements with other, more conventional analytical techniques, such as ceramic petrography, stationary geochemistry (WD-XRF, NAA) or others.

Panel 11.5 (offen)

The economy of progression and regression through a zooarchaeological and material culture perspective

Organisatoren:

Lee Perry-Gal und Artemios Oikonomou
(University of Nottingham)

Vortragende:

wird noch bekannt gegeben

Diskutant:

wird noch bekannt gegeben

The Greco-Roman and Byzantine cultures in the South Eastern Mediterranean have gone through both processes of progression and regression which deeply affected human economy, society and environment. Archaeologically speaking, progression (i.e. prosperity, growth) or regression (i.e. catastrophe, degradation, degeneration) of a site during a specific time period, is identified mainly through various factors/processes which are evident in the archaeological record such as destruction layers, poor or rich material culture, artistic expression, level of commerce, food remains etc. Here we suggest a combination of two characteristic indicators: animal remains and material culture, as some highly effective tools for reconstructing and describing the above powerful processes. The study of these indicators follows an interdisciplinary approach incorporating zooarchaeological methods (to study faunal distribution, managements and exploitation patterns), and various modern and innovative scientific techniques such as isotopic and trace element analysis (to study organic and inorganic materials). In addition to focusing on progression and regression individually, we will also use the above indicators to recognize and reconstruct the longue durée process whereby a single site transit from a state of catastrophe to a state of prosperity (and backwards). The main goal of this panel is to encourage a multidisciplinary, original and fertile discussion between scholars from different fields of knowledge. While focusing on prominent wide-range archaeological case-studies, this symposium will create new insights regarding the processes of progression and regression, a topic that had yet been discussed with such multidisciplinary approach and to such extent.

Sektion 12

Andere Themen außerhalb des Hauptthemas

Panel 12.1 (offen)

Classical Archaeology in a Digital World (The AIAC presidential panel)

Organisatoren:

Kristian Göransson (Swedish Institute of Classical Studies, Rome)

Vortragende:

wird noch bekannt gegeben

Diskutant:

wird noch bekannt gegeben

Classical Archaeology is a discipline which has undergone major changes in recent decades. From its origin as an "Altertumswissenschaft" with a strong emphasis on art and architecture, Classical Archaeology has embraced the most modern methods in field archaeology and analysis of data. The application of digital humanities to Classical Archaeology has changed how archaeologists work, how data is collected and preserved and how results are made available to colleagues and the public in general. AIAC itself has been a forerunner in digital humanities with the creation and running of Fasti Online and the online peer-reviewed journal FOLD&R. The digital development of the discipline varies from country to country and the purpose of this panel is to present the current situation through examples from different countries. The case studies will provide a basis for a discussion on Classical Archaeology in a digital world - benefits, challenges and where the fast development may take our discipline in the future.

Panel 12.2 (geschlossen)

Identity and cultural hybridism among Etruscans, Italics and Greeks in the Etruscan Po Valley and in Campania between 6th and 4th century BCE: the case study of the necropoleis

Organisatoren:

Elisabetta Govi (Università di Bologna)

Vortragende:

wird noch bekannt gegeben

Diskutant:

wird noch bekannt gegeben

Regarding the analysis of border areas in the Ancient World, the construction of the identity and the cultural hybridism have been the focus of debate among scholars in the last few years. According to this current scientific issues, the double panel takes into account two different areas: on one hand the Etruscan settlements of the Po Valley and on the other the Greeks and Etruscan ones in Campania. As a matter of fact, these geographically distant areas shared the same kind of commercial and cultural interaction between the 6th and the 4th century BCE. The comparative study of funerary contexts in the Po Valley and in Campania unfolds the complex reality of indigenous Etruscan and Italics communities, which, as a result of the contact with the Greeks, developed behavioral codes and their own expressive languages. Therefore, the encounter with the Greeks generated in both areas several degrees of cultural contamination, which are going to be analyzed in order to define the rules of the social rituals among the urban élites. According to the most recent scientific studies on the concept of hybridism and cultural identity, the selection of the grave goods, their processing techniques and functions, the vase shapes, the iconography models, and finally the processes of hybridism and coexistence between imported and local productions are going to be used as the interpretation key for this composite realities. These topics will form the framework on which the analysis of the contexts will be based: on one side the rich and mostly unpublished necropoleis of Bologna, Spina and Adria in the Etruscan Po Valley (Panel 1); on the other the equally extraordinary contexts of Paestum and Pontecagnano in Campania (Panel 2). Definitely, the exceptional documentation of these sites, main points of lively trading routes, is the ideal base for an in-depth analysis of the issues proposed in this double panel.

Panel 12.3 (offen)

Beyond Academia: Classical sites andlocal communities

Organisatoren:

Javier Martínez Jiménez (University of Cambridge) 
Manuel Moreno Alcaide (University of Granada)

Vortragende:

wird noch bekannt gegeben

Diskutant:

wird noch bekannt gegeben

This panel aims to discuss the impact of classical archaeology beyond the academic community on local communities who live near or around classical sites and the general public who visits these sites and museums. We will be very interested in hearing from museums, local authorities, and archaeologists involved with the general public. In this sense, we would like to address three main issues: First, does the general public value or appreciate classical sites more than other types of sites? Do towns and cities with monuments from various periods promote differently Roman remains and, e.g., Gothic cathedrals? Second, how do local communities interact with their classical sites? Do they generate a sense of identity or belonging, or are they seen just as a resource (or as obstacles in construction developments)? Third, should the research and excavation of classical sites by the academic community come second when it comes to their touristic exploitation (e.g., musealisation)?

Panel 12.4 (offen)

Targeting economic and cultural hotspots: an alternative view on early Roman expansionism

Organisatoren:

Tesse D. Stek (Leiden University)

Vortragende:

wird noch bekannt gegeben

Diskutant:

wird noch bekannt gegeben

Roman colonization and expansionism in the Republican period, and its impact on the ancient Mediterranean and beyond, are intensely debated in current ancient historical and archaeological research. Traditional, diffusionist views from the late 19th and especially the 20th century have recently been heavily criticized, and many socio-economic and cultural developments in ancient Italy (e.g. agricultural developments, 'romanization') have been disconnected from Roman conquest and expansionism. Although this development has been extremely important and salutary, this session departs from the idea that we should be careful not to throw away the baby with the bathwater. Very recent and ongoing research can be seen as pointing at real Roman impact in various spheres - if in different ways and places than traditionally assumed. Building on a preliminary paper, in this session, we investigate whether, and if so to what extent, we can invert the causal logic between a series of new socio-economic and cultural developments in the ancient Mediterranean and Roman colonization. In particular, we will explore the notion that Roman expansionism actively targeted hotspots in both economic and cultural networks of special interest in the conquered areas. Seeing local cultural resources at equal footing with more standard local economic resources, and exploring the ways the Roman conquest further enabled and energized these hotspots, stimulates us to rethink the primary workings of Roman expansionism.

Kooperationspartner: